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Title: Routing algorithms for wireless sensor : networks based on the duty cycle of its components
Author: Daemitabalvandani, Maziyar
Director: López de Miguel, Manuel
Keywords: Xarxes de sensors sense fil
Redes de sensores inalámbricas
Wireless sensor networks
Xarxes de sensors sense fil
Redes de sensores inalámbricas
Wireless sensor networks
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2016
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] Wireless sensor network is one of the most important topics in the current data transferring. In fact regarding to data gathering and transformation, cost effective is the top topic and optimum point, which every vendors and sector are focusing on it. In the field of petrochemical regarding sensitive processes could not stay out of this scope and start to monitor the gas pipes and processes over the wireless fashion. Therefore some items should have been taking into considerations such as: instant monitoring, nonstop characteristic, long term investing and energy consuming. According to those aforesaid items, we have planned to do an investigation and find the feasibly of how we can to create and distribute a network to have accuracy to measurement , sending data reliability, having long term network life cycle and having minimum energy consuming. Therefore the only technology could help us was IEEE 802.15.4 with mixed of microcontrollers and transceivers, able to manipulate to reach out our objects in maximizing lifetime and minimizing latency in wsn, as an unique routing algorithm in Mobile ad Hoc Network. WSN in fact is a relatively new section of networking technology and nowadays is more popular. The reason of these advantages instead of others is low-power microcontroller and inexpensive sensor usage for any communications and also simple sensor designing. Regarding to network layers, Physical layer for WSN based on IEEE802.15.4 is fundamental of frames and packets transactions. So two main devices which are involving in this project: transceivers such as CC2520 and CC3200 ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 RF, managed by microcontrollers. Common controller for those transceivers such as MSP430F1611 16-bit MSP430 family for Texas instrument in the nodes and coordinators ideas were selected. One step more close to the idea, was other layer so called Link layer or in other hand MAC layer. Another advantage of WSN is ability to manipulate MAC layer, because modifications in lower layer always has low Energy consuming than other layers. Therefore according to these circumstances, MAC protocols are able to energy efficiency, also reduce and achieve to zero based of unused time in WSN. So any WSN, energy wasting could be control in MAC sub layer and even though MAC protocols. Other layer in WSN is declared as a Network layer, the logical way which those packets could be find the best way and shortest path in minimum time as possible and reachability to the main point based on node and coordinator. Nodes are programmed in upper layer and have been matched with MAC layer, now it's time to join and stick the frames in a packet and involving to each other. Meanwhile we decided to create a middle layer through MAC and Network layer to play as a bridge, mainly called VRT (Variable Response Time) and FRT (Fixed Response Time) to control the energy consumption in the process of routing in network layer. This algorithm is cooperating with MAC layer in sleep and wake up modes, in fact with VRT, nodes just received their needs and captured the vital packet in wake up mode, sends back the answer, now the task is finished and both sided transaction is done. After that, it's not need to have more listening and capturing packets from the remote nodes as a coordinator therefore, left the transmission process to save more energy for further wireless communication stream in sleep mode. Also FRT is another algorithm in MAC layer, to decrease the energy consumption. This algorithm is switch based energy control, as a same concept in VRT in sleeping and wakeup mode. Finally we have design this algorithm in Simulator and real world. The results correlate quite well results showing as a good agreement between two worlds, also we have obtained better results in battery consumption over network life cycle to other business algorithms.
[spa] En este trabajo nos focalizaremos en la minimización del consumo a partir de la minimización del número de transmisiones. Buscamos por tanto aquel algoritmo que nos permita aumentar la probabilidad de aciertos. Esta idea, diseñará el algoritmo de enrutamiento que mejor se ajusta a la red MANET. Una vez simulada la red se diseñará un "testbed" en donde una parte de la red se implementará de forma real, mediante la introducción de sensores inalámbricos y la otra parte se hará de forma simulada, a través de una interfaz que interconecta el mundo real con la simulación de Spyder. Se pretende ver que ambos mundos progresan de forma similar. Con respecto a la capa de OSI en WSN, sería prioritaria la capa física o capa de hardware, por este motivo nuestra proyecto también se centra en el tipo determinado de hardware que debe aplicarse para obtener resultados satisfactorios. Entonces tratamos las características de los dos hardwares, el transceiver y el microcontroller. También se trata en este apartado su concepto lógico de acuerdo con la ficha técnica oficial IEEE802.15.4. La segunda prioridad de la capa OSI se centra en el Medium Access Control (MAC) de la capa. En esta capa nuestro objetivo se logrará mediante la manipulación de las addresses MAC. Los protocolos MAC deben estar orientados a la reducción del consumo de energía y también a la reducción del tiempo no utilizado en WSN, para ello aplicamos algunas políticas para controlar los comportamientos del tráfico en esta capa para cambiar el consumo de energía, la vida útil de la red y evitar el gasto innecesario de recursos, en realidad concentramos a nuestro algoritmo VRT y FRT. Respecto de la idea principal, de controlar los sensores para aumentar la vida útil de la red y disminuir el consumo de energía. En realidad se explica cómo controlar la capa MAC y forzar el hardware para lograr el objetivo principal de este proyecto. De hecho podemos decir que mejoramos el reenvío de paquetes entre los sensores intermedios, buscando el promedio de distancia HOP más corta desde el origen al destino, así como la disminución del consumo de energía en cada sensor.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Electrònica

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