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Title: Self-perception of leadership styles and behaviour in primary health care
Author: Jodar i Solà, Glòria
Gené Badia, Joan
Delgado-Hito, Pilar
Campo Osaba, M. Antònia
Val García, Jose Luís del
Keywords: Atenció primària
Comportament col·lectiu
Psicologia del treball
Satisfacció en el treball
Primary health care
Collective behavior
Industrial psychology
Job satisfaction
Issue Date: 12-Oct-2016
Publisher: BioMed Central
Abstract: Background: The concept of leadership has been studied in various disciplines and from different theoretical approaches. It is a dynamic concept that evolves over time. There are few studies in our field on managers' self-perception of their leadership style. There are no pure styles, but one or another style is generally favoured to a greater or lesser degree. In the primary health care (PHC) setting, managers' leadership style is defined as a set of attitudes, behaviours, beliefs and values. The objectives of this study were to describe and learn about the self-perception of behaviours and leadership styles among PHC managers; to determine the influence of the leadership style on job satisfaction, efficiency, and willingness to work in a team; and to determine the relationship between transformational and transactional styles according age, gender, profession, type of manager years of management experience, and the type of organization. Methods: To describe leadership styles as perceived by PHC managers, a cross sectional study was performed using an 82 items-self-administered Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). This questionnaire measures leadership styles, attitudes and behaviour of managers. The items are grouped into three first order variables (transformational, transactional and laissez-faire) and ten second order variables (which discriminate leader behaviours). Additionally, the questionnaire evaluates organizational consequences such as extra-effort, efficiency and satisfaction. Results: One hundred forty responses from 258 managers of 133 PHC teams in the Barcelona Health Area (response rate: 54.26%). Most participants were nurses (61.4%), average age was 49 years and the gender predominantly female (75%). Globally, managers assessed themselves as equally transactional and transformational leaders (average: 3.30 points). Grouped by profession, nurses (28.57% of participants) showed a higher transactional leadership style, over transformational leadership style, compared to physicians (3.38 points, p < 0.003). Considering gender, men obtained the lowest results in transactional style (p < 0.015). Both transactional and transformational styles correlate with efficiency and job satisfaction (r = 0.724 and r = 0.710, respectively). Conclusions: PHC managers' self-perception of their leadership style was transactional, focused on the maintenance of the status quo, although there was a trend in some scores towards the transformational style, mainly among nurse managers. Both styles correlate with satisfaction and willingness to strive to work better. Keywords: Leadership, Primary health care, Self-concept, Job satisfaction, MLQ, Managers
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It is part of: BMC Health Services Research, 2016, vol. 16, p. 1-9
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ISSN: 1472-6963
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Infermeria Fonamental i Medicoquirúrgica)

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