Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/107487
Title: CSEM monitoring at the Hontomín CO2 storage site: modeling, experimental design and baseline results
Author: Vilamajó Llobera, Eloi, 1988-
Director: Queralt i Capdevila, Pilar
Keywords: Seguiment ambiental
Diòxid de carboni
Environmental monitoring
Carbon dioxide
Issue Date: 17-Jun-2016
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] This thesis is devoted to the development of a land-based controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) experimental methodology to be applied to the monitoring of CO2 storage at the Technological Development Plant (TDP) of Hontomín (Burgos, Spain). The main objectives of the thesis are 1) the evaluation of the feasibility of performing a CSEM monitoring at Hontomín, 2) the design of the CSEM monitoring experiment, and 3) the acquisition of the baseline (pre-injection) data set and the processing of the data obtaining the geoelectrical response of the structure. A modeling experiment has been performed simulating the resistivity changes in the reservoir caused by the storage and evaluating the ability of the method to detect them. The study analyzes the capabilities of different experimental configurations (source/receiver location and relative orientation, emission frequencies...) in order to decide the appropriate configuration in views of the real experiment. The study considered the simulation of an experimental configuration in two different moments of the storage process (pre- and post-injection). It compares the synthetic results obtained in each case and seeks the differences to infer the presence of CO2. A wide range of scenarios of increasing complexity were simulated, from 1D models with an infinite CO2 plume to models with a 3D plume in a medium that contains the casings of the injection and monitoring wells and considers the noise conditions at the Hontomín TDP. The CO2 effect on the synthetic data was analyzed with two different approaches: quantifying the signal caused by the CO2 on the data, TLS (time-lapse signal), and comparing it with the noise conditions in the study area, D (detectability). A borehole-to-surface configuration is sensitive to the presence of CO2, to its saturation and to the relative position source/plume. Furthermore, it was observed that the steel casings installed in the injection and monitoring wells affect the EM propagation from the transmitter to the surface. The study concluded that the CSEM monitoring is suitable at Hontomín given that measurable changes will occur between time- lapsed data sets. Considering the results obtained in the modeling study, the CSEM monitoring experiment was designed. The baseline acquisition was carried out between April 21st and 26th 2014. A borehole-to-surface configuration was used with three different transmitter dipoles: 1) vertical dipole in the injection well HI (dVED-1), 2) vertical dipole in the monitoring well HA dVED- 2), and 3) horizontal dipole using one electrode in each well (dHED). Receivers were distributed at the surface in two different patterns: cross-shape and circular-shape. During each emission, 86 surface dipoles were measuring the electric field. Data processing focused on the obtaining of the geoelectrical response of the subsurface for each source/receiver configuration and for each processed frequency. To this goal, time series were divided into segments and, for each one, the transfer function between source transmission and receiver electric field were calculated. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of experimental uncertainty (error associated to each measurement) and experimental repeatability. Experimental results allowed to characterize the geoelectrical response of the Hontomín structure (including steel casings). Baseline data quality is high: experimental errors are lower than 1% in amplitude and 1º in phase for most of the data points. Repeatability is high (differences lower than 1% in most of the cases). The casing influence over the experimental data was investigated. We tested the hypothesis that a current was induced along the casing of the injection well. To reproduce the experimental behavior of the data, a number of scenarios have been simulated. For low frequencies, the hypothesis can explain the experimental data. Considering the high data quality obtained and the results of the modeling study, we consider that the CSEM experiment will be able to detect the CO2-caused resistivity changes in the reservoir after the post-injection repetition of the experiment.
[cat] Aquesta tesi se centra en el desenvolupament del mètode electromagnètic de font controlada (CSEM) aplicat al monitoratge de l’emmagatzematge geològic de diòxid de carboni (CO2) a la Planta de Demostració Tecnològica (PDT) d’Hontomín (Burgos). El control del comportament del CO2 es basa en la detecció dels canvis de resistivitat que tenen lloc al reservori un cop el CO2 desplaça la salmorra. La tesi engloba el progrés de l’experiment de monitoratge CSEM des dels seus inicis fins a l’actualitat. En primer lloc, s’avalua la viabilitat del monitoratge mitjançant el mètode CSEM a partir d’un estudi de modelització numèrica i s’analitzen les bondats de diferents configuracions experimentals. L’estudi consisteix en la simulació d’una configuració experimental en dos estadis del procés d’emmagatzematge (pre-injecció i post-injecció) i en la comparació dels resultats sintètics amb l’objectiu de relacionar les diferències amb la presència del CO2. Inclou la simulació d’un ampli rang d’escenaris de complexitat creixent. Es proposen dues aproximacions diferents per poder quantificar el senyal causat pel CO2 i comparar-lo amb les condicions de soroll reals a Hontomín. En segon lloc, es descriu el disseny del dispositiu de control de l’evolució temporal de la ploma de CO2 aplicat a la PDT d’Hontomín i la realització de la campanya pre-injecció. El processat de les dades experimentals ha consistit en el càlcul de la resposta geoelèctrica de la formació geològica, incloent les carcasses metàl·liques dels pous d’injecció i monitoratge. Les dades experimentals s’analitzen en funció del seu error experimental i de la seva repetibilitat. La qualitat de les dades experimentals pre-injecció és alta respecte als dos punts de vista: els errors experimentals són inferiors a l’1% en l’amplitud i a 1º en la fase per la majoria de les dades i les diferències en la repetibilitat són inferiors a l’1% en la majoria dels casos. Finalment, s’estudia la influència de les carcasses sobre les dades experimentals. S’investiga si la inducció d’un corrent al llarg de la carcassa del pou d’injecció pot explicar el seu comportament. A partir de la simulació de diferents escenaris, s’ha comprovat que la hipòtesi és capaç de reproduir el comportament qualitatiu de les dades a freqüències baixes.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/107487
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Geodinàmica i Geofísica

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