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Title: Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis
Author: Beltrame, Anna
Guerriero, Massimo
Angheben, Andrea
Gobbi, Federico
Requena-Méndez, Ana
Zammarchi, Lorenzo
Formenti, Fabio
Perandin, Francesca
Buonfrate, Dora
Bisoffi, Zeno
Keywords: Esquistosomes
Infeccions del tracte urinari
Urinary tract infections
Issue Date: 5-Jun-2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD) in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT). Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard): ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively), with a high NPV (98%). CCA showed the highest specificity (93%), but low sensitivity (48%). The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests) and Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92) for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96%) and NPV (97%), moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively). ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%). The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants.
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It is part of: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2017, vol. 11, num. 6, p. e0005593
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ISSN: 1935-2727
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (ISGlobal)

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