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Title: Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration
Author: Aquino Martínez, Rubén Francisco
Angelo, Alcira P.
Ventura Pujol, Francesc
Keywords: Ossos
Cèl·lules mare
Migració cel·lular
Creixement dels ossos
Stem cells
Cell migration
Bones growth
Issue Date: Nov-2017
Publisher: BioMed Central
Abstract: Background: osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca2+-containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods: a circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter) was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. Results: CaSO4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO4-containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration. Conclusions: specific CaSO4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host's undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO4 regulates BMP-2-induced MSC migration by differentially activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. Altogether, these results suggest that CaSO4 scaffolds could have potential applications for bone regeneration.
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It is part of: Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 2017, vol. 8, p. 265
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ISSN: 1757-6512
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Ciències Fisiològiques)
Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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