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Title: Liquid-phase synthesis of butyl levulinate with simultaneous water removal catalyzed by ion exchange resins
Author: Iborra Urios, Montserrat
Tejero Salvador, Xavier
Fité Piquer, Carles
Ramírez Rangel, Eliana
Cunill García, Fidel
Keywords: Alcohol butílic
Resines de bescanvi iònic
Ion exchange resins
Issue Date: 15-Jun-2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: The liquid-phase synthesis of butyl levulinate by esterification of levulinic with an excess of 1-butanol (initial molar ratio 1:3) and simultaneous water removal has been studied at atmospheric pressure and at the boiling point of the reacting medium. The catalytic performance of ten commercial sulfonic resins has been compared: four gel-type and six macroreticular. For both type of resins the levulinic acid conversion was complete after 4-6h and no byproducts derived from the acid were detected. Selectivity of 1-butanol towards the ester was about 95%, di-butyl ether and butenes being the detected 1-butanol-derived byproducts. Among the tested catalysts, gel-type resins with low crosslinking degree showed the highest activity, what could be attributed to a higher accessibility to active centers in polar medium. In additional experiments where initial reactants content was at stoichiometric relation, the levulinic acid conversion was lower (82-85%), while selectivity of 1-butanol towards the ester was slightly higher, because of the lower 1-butanol concentration.
Note: Versió postprint del document publicat a:
It is part of: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2019, vol. 78, p. 222-231
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ISSN: 1226-086X
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Enginyeria Química i Química Analítica)

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