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Title: Targeting tumor microenvironment crosstalk through GPCR receptors and PI3K pathway
Author: Guerrero Hernández, Martina
Director/Tutor: Pérez Galán, Patricia
Camps Polo, Jordi
Keywords: Oncologia
Ciències de la salut
Medical sciences
Issue Date: 19-Feb-2019
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] The tumor microenvironment (TME) is gaining momentum due to its contribution to cancer progression and therapy resistance. This TME has a direct crosstalk with tumor cells that involves the activation of different pathways. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although FL is generally characterized by slow progression and high response rates to therapy, it is still considered incurable, because almost virtually all the patients relapse. FL is probably the NHL with the highest dependence on microenvironment. PI3K is a common denominator transducing the signaling from FL crosstalk with the TME and plays an important role in multiple cellular functions, and also contributes to cancer promoting aspects of the TME, such as angiogenesis and inflammatory cell recruitment. Idelalisib is a first-in-class δ isoform- specific PI3K inhibitor that receive regulatory approval for relapsed CLL, SLL and FL in 2014. Idelalisib blocks PI3K δ which is restricted to leukocytes. BCL2 deregulation is paramount in the pathogenesis of FL, as a consequence of the t(14;18), and therefore it is an attractive target for novel therapeutic approaches. Venetoclax (ABT-199, AbbVie) is a small BCL-2 inhibitors. Even though 85% of FL patients harbor the t(14;18), the results of the first clinical trial with venetoclax were not satisfactory (overall response 38%). From this first study we conclude that Idelalisib modulates key pathways in the germinal center and shapes the FL immune microenvironment by decreasing the recruitment of TFH and Treg to the tumor site leading to less immunesuppresive phenotype. Furthermore Idelalisib induces a moderate cytotoxic effect on FL cells in co-cultures. This co-culture decrease FL dependence on BCL-2 and consequently, venetoclax cytotoxicity, but Idelalisib sensitizes FL co-cultures to venetoclax. In summary, Idelalisib interferes with the crosstalk of FL and its immune microenvironment and potentiates the activity of venetoclax targeting the tumor cells, thus representing a promising combination therapy that may improve FL outcome. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in males and the second in females, and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Patients with advanced and distal metastatic disease (stage IV), the survival rate drops to 10%, which accounts for approximately 18% of cases. The TME in CRC, is a complex structure composed by different type of cells, which are interacting each other’s and secreting a variety of growth factors and other molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines. Tumor development is based on the crosstalk between tumor cells and their surrounding microenvironment, and this crosstalk is mediated by the receptors and its ligand expression in both types of cells. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an important family of membrane signaling receptors, which have an important role in cancer growth and development. Originally, GPCRs were considered as monomeric functional entities, nevertheless, in recent years has become evident that GPCRs form dimers and this dimers formation may modify the cellular response. In cancer, CXCR4 (has been studied extensively) plays an important role at different stages of cancer development, and is involved in the metastasis process of tumor cells. The up- regulation of CXCR4 in CRC correlates with a poor prognosis. Another GPCR, CB2 receptor modulates the downstream signaling and it is able to activate a wide range of signaling pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). In CRC, it has been described an up-regulation of CB2 receptor expression. GPCRs show differential expression in cancer cells and tissues, and they are highly druggable sites. From this second study we concluded that CXCR4 and CB2 expression is increased in primary colon tumor cells and in metastasis cells compared to normal epithelial cells from colon mucosa, and they formed heterodimers in colon tumoral cells and are associated with more aggressive phenotypes. Moreover, a bidirectional cross-antagonism crosstalk is established between these receptors. These heterodimers regulate in vitro CXCL12-induced migration, and in vivo, the simultaneous inhibition of both receptors shows superior anti-tumoral and anti-metastatic activities than the single agent inhibition. In summary, targeting the heterodimerization of CXCR4 and CB2 that are biologically relevant in cancer can be an effective way to reduce proliferation and dissemination in CRC.
[spa] El estudio del microambiente tumoral está ganando importancia en las últimas décadas debido a su contribución en la formación y desarrollo del cáncer, además de contribuir en la resistencia de las células tumorales a diferentes terapias. Este microambiente interactúa con las células tumorales y activa diferentes vías. El linfoma folicular (FL), es el linfoma no Hodgkin indolente más común y con mayor dependencia del microambiente tumoral, además es considerado incurable. PI3K desempeña un papel importante en la comunicación con el microambiente, y es importante en múltiples funciones celulares, además de contribuir en la angiogénesis, reclutamiento de células inflamatorias y promover el crecimiento tumoral. Idelalisib es un inhibidor de PI3K (específicamente de la isoforma δ), que se aprobó en 2014 por la FDA. Paralelamente la desregulación de BCL2 es primordial en la patogénesis de FL, como consecuencia de la t (14; 18), presente en un 85% de los pacientes, y por lo tanto es un objetivo atractivo para novedosos enfoques terapéuticos. Venetoclax (ABT-199, AbbVie) es un pequeño inhibidor de BCL2, que mostró unos resultados del primer ensayo clínico no satisfactorios (respuesta global del 38%). De este primer estudio concluimos que Idelalisib interfiere en la comunicación de FL y su microambiente inmune, además potencia la actividad de venetoclax atacando a las células tumorales, lo que representa una terapia de combinación prometedora que puede mejorar el resultado del tratamiento de FL.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Facultat - Medicina

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