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Title: NMR and computational studies on the reactions of enamines with nitroalkenes that may pass through cyclobutanes
Author: Castro Álvarez, Alejandro
Carneros, Héctor
Calafat, Jaume
Costa i Arnau, Anna M.
Marco Correas, Cristian
Vilarrasa i Llorens, Jaume
Keywords: Enamines
Reaccions d'addició
Reacció aldòlica
Catàlisi heterogènia
Addition reactions
Aldol reaction
Heterogeneus catalysis
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Abstract: The addition of aldehyde enamines to nitroalkenes affords cyclobutanes in all solvents, with all of the pyrrolidine and proline derivatives tested by us and with all of the substrates we have examined. Depending on the temperature, concentration of water, solvent polarity, and other factors, the opening and hydrolysis of such a four-membered ring may take place rapidly or last for several days, producing the final Michael-like adducts (4-nitrobutanals). Thirteen new cyclobutanes have now been characterized by NMR spectroscopy. As could be expected, s-trans-enamine conformers give rise to all-trans-(4S)-4-nitrocyclobutylpyrrolidines, while s-cis-enamine conformers afford all-trans-(4R)-4-nitrocyclobutylpyrrolidines. These four-membered rings can isomerize to adduct enamines, which should be hydrolyzed via their iminium ions. MP2 and M06-2X calculations predict that one iminium ion is more stable than the other iminium species, so that protonation of the adduct enamines can be quite stereoselective; in the presence of water, the so-called syn adducts (e.g., OCH-*CHR-*CHPh-CH2NO2, with R and Ph syn) eventually become the major products. Why one syn adduct is obtained with aldehydes, whereas cyclic ketones (the predicted ring-fused cyclobutanes of which isomerize to their enamines more easily) produce the other syn adduct, is also explained by means of molecular orbital calculations. Nitro-Michael reactions of aldehyde enamines that "stop" at the nitrocyclobutane stage and final enamine stage do not work catalytically, as known, but those of cyclic ketone enamines that do not work stop at the final enamine stage (if their hydrolysis to the corresponding nitroethylketones is less favorable than expected). These and other facts are accounted for, and the proposals of the groups led by Seebach and Hayashi, Blackmond, and Pihko and Papai are reconciled.
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It is part of: ACS Omega, 2019, vol. 4, p. 18167-18194
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ISSN: 2470-1343
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Química Inorgànica i Orgànica)

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