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Title: Genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer: syndromes, genes, classification of genetic variants and implications for precision medicine
Author: Valle, Laura
Vilar, Eduardo
Tavtigian, Sean V.
Stoffel, Elena M.
Keywords: Cáncer colorectal
Colorectal cancer
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2019
Publisher: Wiley
Abstract: This article reviews genes and syndromes associated with predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC), with an overview of gene variant classification. We include updates on the application of preventive and therapeutic measures, focusing on the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and immunotherapy. Germline pathogenic variants in genes conferring high or moderate risk to cancer are detected in 6-10% of all CRCs and 20% of those diagnosed before age 50. CRC syndromes can be subdivided into nonpolyposis and polyposis entities, the most common of which are Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis, respectively. In addition to known and novel genes associated with highly penetrant CRC risk, identification of pathogenic germline variants in genes associated with moderate-penetrance cancer risk and/or hereditary cancer syndromes not traditionally linked to CRC may have an impact on genetic testing, counseling, and surveillance. The use of multigene panels in genetic testing has exposed challenges in the classification of variants of uncertain significance. We provide an overview of the main classification systems and strategies for improving these. Finally, we highlight approaches for integrating chemoprevention in the care of individuals with genetic predisposition to CRC and use of targeted agents and immunotherapy for treatment of mismatch repair-deficient and hypermutant tumors. Copyright (c) 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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It is part of: Journal Of Pathology, 2019-04-01, Vol. 247, num. 5, P. 574-588
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Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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