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Title: Methylation regulation of Antiviral host factors, Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) and T-cell responses associated with natural HIV control
Author: Oriol Tordera, Bruna
Berdasco, María
Llano, Anuska
Mothe, Beatriz
Gálvez, Cristina
Martinez Picado, Javier
Carrillo, Jorge
Blanco, Julià
Duran Castells, Clara
Ganoza, Carmela
Sanchez, Jorge
Clotet, Bonaventura
Calle, Maria Luz
Sànchez, Àlex (Sànchez Pla)
Esteller, Manel
Brander, Christian
Ruiz Riol, Marta
Keywords: VIH (Virus)
Cèl·lules T
HIV (Viruses)
T cells
Issue Date: 1-Aug-2020
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Abstract: GWAS, immune analyses and biomarker screenings have identified host factors associated within vivoHIV-1 control. However, there is a gap in the knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate the expression of such host factors. Here, we aimed to assess DNA methylation impact on host genome in natural HIV-1 control. To this end, whole DNA methylome in 70 untreated HIV-1 infected individuals with either high (>50,000 HIV-1-RNA copies/ml, n = 29) or low (<10,000 HIV-1-RNA copies/ml, n = 41) plasma viral load (pVL) levels were compared and identified 2,649 differentially methylated positions (DMPs). Of these, a classification random forest model selected 55 DMPs that correlated with virologic (pVL and proviral levels) and HIV-1 specific adaptive immunity parameters (IFNg-T cell responses and neutralizing antibodies capacity). Then, cluster and functional analyses identified two DMP clusters: cluster 1 contained hypo-methylated genes involved in antiviral and interferon response (e.g.PARP9,MX1, andUSP18) in individuals with high viral loads while in cluster 2, genes related to T follicular helper cell (Tfh) commitment (e.g.CXCR5andTCF7) were hyper-methylated in the same group of individuals with uncontrolled infection. For selected genes, mRNA levels negatively correlated with DNA methylation, confirming an epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Further, these gene expression signatures were also confirmed in early and chronic stages of infection, including untreated, cART treated and elite controllers HIV-1 infected individuals (n = 37). These data provide the first evidence that host genes critically involved in immune control of the virus are under methylation regulation in HIV-1 infection. These insights may offer new opportunities to identify novel mechanisms ofin vivovirus control and may prove crucial for the development of future therapeutic interventions aimed at HIV-1 cure. Author summary The infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as for other viral infections, induce global DNA Methylation changes in the host genome. Herein, we identified for first time the methylation impact on host genome in untreated HIV-1 infection with different degrees ofin vivovirus control. Specifically, we observed that individuals with a better HIV-1 control showed a hypermethylation of genes associated with antiviral and interferon pathways and the hypomethylation of genes associated with the differentiation process of T follicular helper cells. Interestingly, these epigenetic imprints in host genome were strongly correlated with virus content and HIV-specific T cell responses. Therefore, we propose DNA Methylation as the regulation mechanism of host genes involved in immune HIV-1 control that could interfere in the efficacy of cure strategies. We also highlight the importance of DNA Methylation to regulate immune responses not only in HIV-1 but also in chronic infections or other pathologic situations associated with a sustained activation of the immune system.
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It is part of: PLoS Pathogens, 2020, vol. 16, num. 8, p. e1008678
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Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))
Articles publicats en revistes (Genètica, Microbiologia i Estadística)
Articles publicats en revistes (Ciències Fisiològiques)

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