Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/173332
Title: Assessment of ion-exchange resins as catalysts for the direct transformation of fructose into butyl levulinate
Author: Ramírez Rangel, Eliana
Bringué Tomàs, Roger
Fité Piquer, Carles
Iborra Urios, Montserrat
Tejero Salvador, Xavier
Cunill García, Fidel
Keywords: Resines de bescanvi iònic
Fructosa
Catàlisi
Ion exchange resins
Fructose
Catalysis
Issue Date: 7-Jan-2021
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Abstract: The transformation of fructose into butyl levulinate in aqueous 1-butanol (initial molar ratio 1-butanol/fructose 79, and butanol/water 1.19) has been studied in a discontinuous reactor at 80-120C and 2.0 MPa over 8 sulfonic polystyrene-DVB ion exchange resins as catalysts (catalyst loading 0.85-3.4%). Resins swell greatly in the reaction medium and the reaction takes place mainly in the swollen gel-phase. Swollen resins in water have been characterized by analysis of ISEC data, and spaces originated in the gel phase upon swelling are described in terms of zones of different polymer density. A relationship has been found between the morphology of swollen resins and ester production. Swollen resins with low polymer density show the highest butyl levulinate yield. Dowex 50Wx2 was the most effective because it creates the largest and widest spaces in the gel-phase when swelling. Consequently, it better accommodates the proton-transfer-reaction mechanisms
Note: Versió postprint del document publicat a: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2021.117988
It is part of: Applied Catalysis A-General, 2021, vol. 612, num. 117988, p. 1-17
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/173332
Related resource: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2021.117988
ISSN: 0926-860X
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Enginyeria Química i Química Analítica)

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