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dc.contributor.authorWyn-Jones, A. Petercat
dc.contributor.authorCarducci, Annalauracat
dc.contributor.authorCook, Nigelcat
dc.contributor.authorD'Agostino, Martincat
dc.contributor.authorDivizia, Mauriziocat
dc.contributor.authorFleischer, Jenscat
dc.contributor.authorGantzer, Christophecat
dc.contributor.authorGawler, Andrewcat
dc.contributor.authorGironès Llop, Rosinacat
dc.contributor.authorHöller, Christianecat
dc.contributor.authorRoda Husman, Ana Maria decat
dc.contributor.authorKozyra, Iwonacat
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Pila, Juancat
dc.contributor.authorMuscillo, Michelecat
dc.contributor.authorNascimento, Mariacat
dc.contributor.authorPapageorgiou, Georgecat
dc.contributor.authorRutjes, Saskiacat
dc.contributor.authorSellwood, Janecat
dc.contributor.authorWyer, Markcat
dc.contributor.authorKay, Davidcat
dc.description.abstractExposure to human pathogenic viruses in recreational waters has been shown to cause disease outbreaks. In the context of Article 14 of the revised European Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC (rBWD, CEU, 2006) a Europe-wide surveillance study was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of two human enteric viruses in recreational waters. Adenoviruses were selected based on their near-universal shedding and environmental survival, and noroviruses (NoV) selected as being the most prevalent gastroenteritis agent worldwide. Concentration of marine and freshwater samples was done by adsorption/elution followed by molecular detection by (RT)-PCR. Out of 1410 samples, 553 (39.2%) were positive for one or more of the target viruses. Adenoviruses, detected in 36.4% of samples, were more prevalent than noroviruses (9.4%), with 3.5% GI and 6.2% GII, some samples being positive for both GI and GII. Of 513 human adenovirus-positive samples, 63 (12.3%) were also norovirus-positive, whereas 69 (7.7%) norovirus-positive samples were adenovirus-negative. More freshwater samples than marine water samples were virus-positive. Out of a small selection of samples tested for adenovirus infectivity, approximately one-quarter were positive. Sixty percent of 132 nested-PCR adenovirus-positive samples analysed by quantitative PCR gave a mean value of over 3000 genome copies per L of water. The simultaneous detection of infectious adenovirus and of adenovirus and NoV by (RT)PCR suggests that the presence of infectious viruses in recreational waters may constitute a public health risk upon exposure. These studies support the case for considering adenoviruses as an indicator of bathing water quality.eng
dc.format.extent35 p.-
dc.publisherElsevier B.V.eng
dc.relation.isformatofVersió postprint del document publicat a:
dc.relation.ispartofWater Research, 2011, vol. 45, núm. 3, p. 1025-1038-
dc.rights(c) Elsevier B.V., 2010-
dc.subject.classificationAigua dolçacat
dc.subject.classificationAigua de marcat
dc.subject.classificationQualitat de l'aiguacat
dc.subject.otherFresh watereng
dc.subject.otherWater qualityeng
dc.titleSurveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waterseng
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Genètica, Microbiologia i Estadística)
Publicacions de projectes de recerca finançats per la UE

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