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Title: RAD51D Aberrant Splicing in Breast Cancer: Identification of Splicing Regulatory Elements and Minigene-Based Evaluation of 53 DNA Variants
Author: Bueno Martínez, Elena
Sanoguera Miralles, Lara
Valenzuela Palomo, Alberto
Lorca, Víctor
Gómez Sanz, Alicia
Carvalho, Sara
Allen, Jamie
Infante, Mar
Pérez Segura, Pedro
Lázaro García, Conxi
Easton, Douglas F.
Devilee, Peter
Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.
Hoya, Miguel de la
Velasco, Eladio A.
Keywords: Càncer de mama
Càncer d'ovari
Breast cancer
Ovarian cancer
Issue Date: 7-Jun-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: RAD51D loss-of-function variants increase lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Splicing disruption is a frequent pathogenic mechanism associated with variants in susceptibility genes. Herein, we have assessed the splicing and clinical impact of splice-site and exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) variants identified through the study of similar to 113,000 women of the BRIDGES cohort. A RAD51D minigene with exons 2-9 was constructed in splicing vector pSAD. Eleven BRIDGES splice-site variants (selected by MaxEntScan) were introduced into the minigene by site-directed mutagenesis and tested in MCF-7 cells. The 11 variants disrupted splicing, collectively generating 25 different aberrant transcripts. All variants but one produced negligible levels (<3.4%) of the full-length (FL) transcript. In addition, ESE elements of the alternative exon 3 were mapped by testing four overlapping exonic microdeletions (>= 30-bp), revealing an ESE-rich interval (c.202_235del) with critical sequences for exon 3 recognition that might have been affected by germline variants. Next, 26 BRIDGES variants and 16 artificial exon 3 single-nucleotide substitutions were also assayed. Thirty variants impaired splicing with variable amounts (0-65.1%) of the FL transcript, although only c.202G>A demonstrated a complete aberrant splicing pattern without the FL transcript. On the other hand, c.214T>C increased efficiency of exon 3 recognition, so only the FL transcript was detected (100%). In conclusion, 41 RAD51D spliceogenic variants (28 of which were from the BRIDGES cohort) were identified by minigene assays. We show that minigene-based mapping of ESEs is a powerful approach for identifying ESE hotspots and ESE-disrupting variants. Finally, we have classified nine variants as likely pathogenic according to ACMG/AMP-based guidelines, highlighting the complex relationship between splicing alterations and variant interpretation.
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It is part of: Cancers, 2021, vol. 13, num. 11
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Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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