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Title: Síntesi Total de la Lamel·larina D i Anàlegs de Cadena Oberta: Estudis d'Internalització Cel·lular i d'Inhibició de Topoisomerases
Author: Pla Queral, Daniel
Director: Álvarez Domingo, Mercedes
Albericio Palomera, Fernando
Keywords: Compostos Heterocíclics
Síntesi i Estructura de Productes Naturals
Issue Date: 19-Jan-2009
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [cat] Aquesta tesi comença amb la presentació de la família de Lamel·larines, uns productes naturals d'orígen marí amb interessants activitats biològiques. En el Capítol 1 se'n descriuen els últims avanços quant al seu aïllament, nova metodologia sintètica i estudis sobre l'activitat biològica i el seu mode d'acció. La consecució d'aquests mètodes sintètics ha obert la porta a la preparació del producte natural, i de molècules anàlogues. Així, en el Capítol 3 es descriu la síntesi de la Lamel·larina D amb una metodologia d'acoblaments creuats successius de Suzuki amb catàlisi de Pd(0). Amb la preparació descrita al Capítol 2 dels bromopolialcòxibenzens s'ha pogut realitzar la síntesi d'una quimioteca d'anàlegs sense lactona de la Lamel·larina D i amb la introducció de diferents patrons de substitució (es descriu al Capítol 4). S'ha assajat l'activitat biològica i estudiat les relacions estructura-activitat d'aquests compostos, cosa que ha permès posar de manifest aquells grups estructuralment importants quant a activitat. Al Capítol 5 es descriu la síntesi d'uns conjugats amb polietilenglicol de la Lamel·larina D, i més enllà al Capítol 6 es descriu la síntesi de conjugats estructuralment més complexos amb una seqüència peptídica de localització nuclear i un dendrímer. Amb els productes sintetitzats s'ha procedit a fer-ne una avaluació de la seva internalització i distribució cel·lulars, estudis co-localització dels productes amb marcatges selectius de membrana, mitocòndries i topoisomerasa.Per l'estudi del mode d'acció de la Lamel·larina D com a inhibidor de la topoisomerasa, s'ha fet ús de biosensors de pinzes òptiques i microscòpia de forces atòmiques. Aquest treball es descriu al Capítol 7 i cal destacar que aquestes novedoses tecnologies amb sensibilitats de pN i resolució nanomètrica es mostren d'elevada utilitat per a l'estudi de l'activitat de la topoisomerasa, i de la seva inhibició.
[eng] Lamellarin D (Lam-D) is a marine alkaloid with antiproliferative activity against various tumor cells in the low nanomolar range. The inhibition of topoisomerase-I, a mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption as well as promotion of apoptosis are its modes of action. Topoisomerase is an especially interesting chemotherapy target, namely because of the topoisomerase-DNA complex, which undergoes mechanical motions essential to its function (Chapter 1). The present research summary highlights the synthetic methodologies used for the synthesis of Lam-D and its related derivatives. Two synthetic strategies (A, B) had been employed for the total synthesis of Lam-D, which enable high versatility and robust methodologies for the preparation of the natural product, regioselective conjugation on its free phenolic groups and its structurally simplified derivatives.Methyl 8-isopropoxy-9-methoxy-5,6-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline-3-carboxylate was used as scaffold of strategy A. Regioselective and sequential introduction of aryl groups followed by Pd(0)-catalyzed cross coupling reactions, aromatization and ether deprotection provided the final compounds in 18-61% yields (Chapter 3). Boronic acids and borolanes were used as building blocks for the synthesis. Its preparation through regioselective bromination under mild conditions of highly activated benzenes and Pd(0)-catalyzed borylation gave the non-commercial polialcoxy synthons (7 compounds, 43-80% yields over 2 steps) for the diverted combinatorial synthesis (Chapter 2).A combinatorial library of 45 analogues of the privileged lead Lam-D was prepared using strategy A in which removal of the lactone ring were implemented in order to improve solubility, and modifications on the OMe/OH substitution pattern were explored for structure activity relationship studies. Lam-D and its analogues were obtained in 18-44% overall yields. A panel of three human tumor cell lines was used to evaluate their cytotoxic potential: A-549 lung carcinoma NSCL, HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, and MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma. Cytotoxicity was observed for numerous compounds at low micromolar concentrations, and clear SAR patterns were determined. SAR study concluded that more than 75% of the 45 open-chain Lam-D analogs tested showed cytotoxicity in a low micromolar GI50 range (Chapter 4). Strategy B, based on quaternization of the isoquinoline, further cycloaddition on the alquine and aromatization, readily gave the pentacyclic structure in good yields. A good choice of orthogonally removable protectors has been developed for the regioselective attachment of well-defined water-soluble polymeric and peptidic nuclear location signal sequence carriers to Lam-D. These chemical modifications can significantly improve both drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect observed in tumor tissue. Mono-, di-, and tri-Lam-D conjugates were regioselectively synthesized through ester bond linkages in the phenolic sites. Polymeric and peptidic conjugates, respectively, have been obtained in 18-84% (2 steps) and 8-20% (2 or 3 steps) overall yields from the corresponding Lam-D protected phenolic derivatives (Chapter 5, 6).Further studies on the mechanism of action of Lamellarin D by innovative optical tweezers biosensors, served to gain a novel insight in the biological engineering of topoisomerase I enzyme and its inhibition by small drugs. Topoisomerase is an especially interesting chemotherapy target, namely because of the topoisomerase-DNA complex, which undergoes mechanical motions essential to its function during the cleavage and religation of a single strand within a duplex DNA (Chapter 7).Here we show the use of optical tweezers to study topoisomerase activity, evidenced by a large increase in the hysteresis of the force cycles resulting from the generation of ssDNA-like domains inside dsλDNA, and subsequent strand religation indicated by recovery of the characteristic dsDNA force fingerprint. In contrast, the presence of the topoisomerase inhibitor Lamellarin D results in a large increase in force hysteresis due to the initial nicking activity of Topo I and a subsequent absence of religation. These results highlight the potential of optical tweezers biosensors for the mechanistic study of DNA-modifying enzymes and for the screening of their inhibitors, and foresee profound implications in drug discovery and medical nanotechnology.
ISBN: 9788469280379
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Farmacologia i Química Terapèutica

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