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Title: Resistance to HIV entry inhibitors: signature mutations as tool guide for the identification of new antiviral agents
Author: González-Ortega, Emmanuel
Director: Esté Araque, José A.
Marrero González, Pedro F.
Keywords: VIH (Virus)
Medicaments antivírics
Antiviral agents
Issue Date: 23-Jul-2012
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] There are several reasons to celebrate the latest advances in the treatment of the infection with HIV. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the number of new infections dropped by 15%; there is also a decrease by 22% in the number of deaths related to HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, there are new emerging challenges, i.e. the transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. Therefore, there is a demand for the continued research for new and more potent antiretroviral agents. The entry of HIV into the cell implies a complex and well-orchestrated series of steps in which both viral and cellular molecules are implied, ending with the production of new viral particles. The HIV gp120 glycoprotein binds to the cellular CD4 receptor and to a chemokine receptor, inducing structural rearrangements that continue with the cellular and viral membrane fusion mediated by the HIV glycoprotein gp41. Hence, the entry of HIV is an essential step of the viral replication that offers an open path for the design of new antiviral compounds that could be added to the repertory of drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection. In coincidence with the recent and highly relevant information of the fusion mechanism occurring during the viral entry, the design of new fusion inhibitors has become one of the most promising and debated areas in the study of entry inhibitors. ADS-J1 was originally selected to bind to gp41 and to inhibit the fusion of membranes. In several assays, including the generation of HIV strains resistant to ADS-J1, our laboratory has proved that ADS-J1 interact with gp120 instead of gp41. A more recent publication suggested that ADS-J1 binds to the pocket region of gp41 preventing the infection by the virus. Here, we confirmed that ADS-J1 interacts with gp120 instead of gp41. Recombination of gp120 into a wild type HIV-1 backbone restored the resistant phenotype. Moreover, time of addition assays clearly demonstrated that ADS-J1 does not interact with gp41. VIRIP was identified as a natural peptide present in human hemofiltrate that inhibits the HIV gp41-mediated membrane fusion. It was suggested that VIRIP interact with the fusion peptide in gp41, therefore blocking the fusion of membranes. With the objective to determine the precise mode of action of VIRIP, we generated a HIV-1 virus resistant to VIR-353, an analogue of VIRIP. Additionally, we determined the most relevant combination of mutations for the resistant phenotype. Recent studies have shown the effectivity of VIR-576, a peptide closely related to VIRIP and VIR-353 in a clinical trial phase I/II. The resistance to VIRIP/VIR-353 took a long time to emerge, suggesting a high genetic barrier to resistance. The mutations responsible for the resistant phenotype affected in large scale the replicative capacity of the virus, nevertheless, several compensatory mutations restored the viral fitness, while the resistance to VIR-353 was unaltered. The antiviral combination of VIR-353 and T20 showed an additive effect in inhibiting viral replication, indicating that VIR-353 appeared no to affect the binding of T20 to gp41 in its antiviral activity, the combination of the two fusion inhibitors showed an additive effect in inhibiting viral replication. In general, our results evidence the plasticity of the HIV envelope glycoproteins. This plasticity is highly remarked when the virus replicates under drug selective pressure, which imposes an additional genetic barrier for the virus to overcome.
[cat] ADS‐J1 ha estat seleccionat per unir‐se a gp41 i inhibir la fusió de les membranes. A través de diversos assajos, incloent la generació de soques resistents a ADS‐J1, el nostre laboratori va demostrar que ADS‐J1 interactua amb gp120 i no amb gp41. Una publicació posterior va suggerir que ADS‐J1 s’uneix a la ‘pocket‐region’ de gp41, prevenint l’infecció pel virus. En el present treball, nosaltres confirmem que ADSJ1 interactua amb gp120 i no amb gp41 i que la recombinació de gp120 en un VIH silvestre restitueix el fenotip resistent. Assajos de temps de addició van demostrar clarament que ADS‐J1 no interactua amb gp41. VIRIP va ser identificat com un pèptid natural present en el hemofiltrat humà capaç d’inhibir la fusió de membranes operada per gp41 del VIH. Es va suggerir que VIRIP interactua amb el pèptid de fusió de gp41, bloquejant la fusió de les membranes. Nosaltres hem generat un virus resistent a VIR‐353, un anàleg de VIRIP. Addicionalment, hem determinat la combinació de mutacions que generen el fenotip resistent. Estudis recents van mostrar l'efectivitat de VIR‐576, un pèptid amb alta similitud a VIRIP i VIR‐353 en un assaig clínic fase I/II. La resistència a VIRIP/VIR‐353 va requerir un període de temps llarg per emergir, la qual cosa suggereix una elevada barrera genètica a la resistència. Les mutacions responsables del fenotip resistent van afectar en greument la capacitat replicativa del virus, no obstant això, diverses mutacions compensatòries van restaurar‐ne la capacitat replicativa, mantenint intacta la resistència a VIR‐353. L’activitat antiviral de T20 no sembla afectada per VIR‐353, la combinació dels dos inhibidors de fusió van mostrar un efecte additiu en la inhibició de la replicació. En general, els nostres resultats evidencien la plasticitat de les glicoproteïnes de l'embolcall del VIH. Aquesta plasticitat es realça quan el virus replica sota la pressió selectiva imposada per fàrmacs que inhibeixen la replicació viral, la qual cosa afegeix una barrera genètica addicional a ser superada pel virus.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular (Farmàcia)

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