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Title: K(ATP) Channel blockade instructs microglia to foster brain repair and neurogenesis after stroke
Author: Ortega González, Fco. Javier
Director/Tutor: Rodríguez Allué, Manuel José
Keywords: Micròglia
Canals de potassi
Isquèmia cerebral
Lesions cerebrals
Potassium channels
Cerebral ischemia
Brain damage
Issue Date: 13-Apr-2012
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] Stroke causes CNS injury associated with strong fast microglial activation as part of the inflammatory response. Fast activation of microglia in response to neuronal damage requires the rapid availability of a large amount of energy to trigger diverse cytotoxic or neuroprotective signals. ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channels play important roles in many cellular functions by coupling cell metabolism to electrical activity. K(ATP) channels were first detected in cardiac myocytes and later found in beta-cells of the pancreas, skeletal muscle, neurons, smooth muscle, heart, pituitary, and tubular cells of the kidney. Our group and others have also demonstrated its expression in reactive microglia after brain injury. In rat models of stroke, blockade of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), with glibenclamide (Gbc) reduced cerebral edema and infarct volume. Furthermore, clinical data suggest the effectiveness of Gbc to treat stroke. Gbc close the K(ATP) channel by interaction with two drug-binding sites on SUR subunits, as well as, the astroglial NC(Ca-ATP) channel, which mediates the Gbc-induced prevention of edema after cerebral ischemia. In these studies however, the function of the K(ATP) channel remained unclear. Therefore, as Gbc may bind to constitute functional K(ATP) channels after ischemic stroke, other possible effects of Gbc might explain the effectiveness of this drug in the treatment of stroke. Giving the fact that, SUR1-regulated channels are exquisitely sensitive to changes in the metabolic state of the cell, and that microglia are sensing the environment, the expression of K(ATP) channels in activated microglia, will couple cell energy to membrane potential. We herein postulate, that the effectiveness of Gbc to treat stoke, at least in part, is caused by the KATP channel closure expressed by activated microglia, which may then be critical in determining, their participation in the pathogenic process. Given the analogy with beta-cells, K(ATP) channel blockade in microglia would response faster and more efficiently to the external signals released after brain injury. If true, blockade of microglial K(ATP) channel with low doses of Gbc during the early stages of stroke might foster neuroprotective microglial activity, could enhance ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the SVZ, and consequently will lead to an improved functional outcome. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates that, Gbc improves functional neurological outcome in stroke, accompanied by neuron preservation in the core of the ischemic brain. In this region, reactive microglia from tMCAO rats upregulate the K(ATP) channel, which makes microglia a target to Gbc actions in the early stages of stroke. Furthermore, Gbc also strengthens the neuroprotective role of microglia in the acute phase after focal cerebral ischemia, enhance long-term neurogenesis and brain repair processes. As such, identify microglial K(ATP) channels as a key target for stroke treatment. Overall, these results provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of other neurological disorders that involve microglia.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Ciències Fisiològiques I

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