Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/41778
Title: Studies on the function and regulation of glucose transporters GLUT2 and GLUT4 in teleost fish / Estudios sobre la función y regulación de los transportadores de glucosa GLUT2 y GLUT4 en peces teleósteos
Author: Marin Juez, Rubén
Director: Planas Vilarnau, Josep
Keywords: Glucosa
Glucose
Metabolisme
Metabolismo
Metabolism
GLUT4
GLUT2
Peix zebra
Danio rerio
Zebra danio
Fugu
Issue Date: 26-Oct-2012
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] The aim of this thesis was to study the function and regulation of two of the major players in the carbohydrate metabolism regulated by insulin, the facilitative glucose transporters GLUT2 and GLUT4, in teleost fish. In order to investigate the role of factors exerting a control on the transcription of the GLUT4 gene, we cloned the GLUT4 promoter in Fugu. The 5 ́-flanking region of the Fugu GLUT4 gene showed similar features to that in mammals. Structurally, comparative analysis between the cloned promoter sequence and that of other fish promoters revealed a high degree of conservation among teleost species. Furthermore, we demonstrated the functionality of the cloned Fugu GLUT4 promoter, and by generating several deletion constructs we were able to determine the minimal promoter. In this study, we have observed that the activity of the Fugu GLUT4 promoter is inhibited by insulin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, all the deletion constructs were repressed by insulin, suggesting the presence of regulatory elements downstream of the TSS. Next, we investigated the effects of PPARγ activation in L6 murine muscle cells transfected with the cloned Fugu GLUT4 promoter. Our results showed that stimulation with PG-J2 significantly stimulated the activity of the Fugu GLUT4 promoter and that this effect was abolished in the Fugu GLUT4 promoter deletions lacking the PPAR/RXR motifs. Finally, we investigated the in vitro effects of experimentally controlled muscle fiber contraction using C2C12 contractile cells expressing the construct containing the Fugu GLUT4 promoter. Using this system to mimic the effects of exercise in vitro in differentiated myotubes we showed an increase in the transcriptional activity of the Fugu GLUT4 promoter. Next studying the function of GLUT2 at early developmental stages we investigated the expression pattern of GLUT2 during embryonic development in zebrafish by ISH, observing transcripts in the liver, pronephric tubules, anterior intestine, endocrine pancreas and neurons surrounding the hindbrain region. To study its function during the early developmental stages in zebrafish we knocked down GLUT2 using antisense morpholinos. Our results showed that embryos lacking GLUT2 display a delay of the whole body development with severe alterations in the midbrain and hindbrain ventricles. Next, by studying the functional alterations triggered by the lack of GLUT2 we observed that morphant embryos displayed an impairment of glucose uptake in the whole body but especially in the head region. Interestingly, a similar pattern was found when assaying cell viability in these embryos, showing a significant increase in apoptotic cell death, mainly located in the cephalic area. Furthermore, blocking the expression of GLUT2 resulted in alterations in the asymmetric distribution of some endoderm-derived organs shown to express this glucose transporter, namely the liver and the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional alterations in these embryos by microarray analysis. Finally, we set out to establish an in vitro system using the mammalian β-cell line MIN6 in order to further study the physiological function of zebrafish GLUT2. Our results showed that we were able to knockdown endogenous GLUT2 leading to a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Furthermore, we successfully established the conditions for the expression of zebrafish GLUT2 in MIN6 and observed a significantly increase in the basal glucose uptake in the pancreatic cells. In addition, preliminary results point to a possible increase in the glucose uptake in cells expressing the rat GLUT2 construct.
[spa] El objetivo de esta tesis fue estudiar la función y regulación de dos de los principales implicados en el metabolismo glucídico regulado por la insulina, los transportadores de glucosa GLUT2 y GLUT4, en los peces teleósteos. En vertebrados no mamíferos, GLUT2 ha sido poco caracterizado hasta la fecha. Se ha demostrado en varias especies de teleósteos que GLUT2 se expresa en los principales tejidos sensibles a la insulina, similar a lo que se describe en los mamíferos. Sin embargo, las propiedades funcionales y el papel fisiológico de GLUT2 apenas han sido descritos en peces. En vista de ello, se ha caracterizado GLUT2 en el pez cebra, ya que dicha especie es uno de los modelos más reconocidos para el estudio de la fisiología, el desarrollo y el metabolismo. En cuanto a GLUT4, nuestro grupo ha sido pionero en la investigación de este transportador en peces teleósteos desde que Planas et al. caracterizaron el primer homologo de GLUT4 en vertebrados inferiores. A pesar de que se ha estudiado más este transportador de glucosa que GLUT2, la información sobre los factores que intervienen en la regulación de la transcripción del gen GLUT4 han sido escasamente caracterizados en mamíferos, mientras que no hay datos disponibles en los vertebrados inferiores. Para ello, en este estudio hemos analizado la regulación de un promotor de GLUT4 de teleósteos bajo la acción de estímulos con conocida capacidad para modular la transcripción y la expresión de GLUT4 en los mamíferos, como la insulina, la contracción de fibras musculares y PPARs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/41778
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Fisiologia i Immunologia

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