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Title: Customizing a low temperature system for microwave transmission measurements. Quantum transport in thin TiN films and nanostructures
Author: Carbonell Cortés, Carla
Director: García Santiago, Antoni
Hernández Ferràs, Joan Manel
Keywords: Superinsulator
Superconductor-insulator transition
Transición superconductor-aislante
Transició superconductor-aïllant
Titanium nitrate thin films
Làmines primes de nitrat de titani
Láminas delgadas de nitrato de titanio
Quantum corrections to conductivity
Current-voltage characteristics
Correcciones cuánticas a la conductividad
Correccions quàntiques a la conductivitat
Característiques corrent-voltatge
Características corriente-voltaje
Issue Date: 22-Jun-2012
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] The work presented in this thesis consists of two distinct parts. The first years of my work focused on the development and improvement of a new equipment built to study magnetic and electrical properties, particularly applying microwaves in reflection and transmission conditions. The sample space in conventional cryostats with superconducting magnets is usually smaller than 10-mm-diameter. Our equipment consists of a hollow cylindrical cryostat having a 33-mm-diameter hole all along its vertical axis. These characteristics enable the measurement of large samples and the use of big resonant cavities to get to a wider microwave (MW) range, particularly in transmission measurements. The cryostat has a superconducting magnet made of a solenoid that applies a magnetic field from -5 T to 5 T, and a temperature controller that works in the range 1.8 - 300 K. The system is cooled down with nitrogen and helium and the temperature can be controlled with the precision required by each experiment using a heater and a needle valve. Different probes for a wide range of experiments in our cryostat have been developed in order to be as versatile as possible. Following this idea each one has been divided in two halves that can be combined as it is preferred in each experiment. Each probe is made of a 8-to-10-mm-diameter stainless steel tube that is used to protect and give some stiffness to the measuring device. A coaxial cable and different waveguides are added to these stainless steel jackets, so we end up having nine halves, four upper parts that can be combined with five lower parts. There are three waveguides working in the frequency ranges 33-50 GHz (WR22), 50-75 GHz (WR15) and 75-110 GHz (WR10), and a coaxial cable that maintains the fundamental mode at a frequency of 60 GHz. In the extra lower part a 16-pin Fischer connector is added at the bottom in order to be able to perform more resistance experiments. Once the probes have been built, they have been tested to make sure the system is able to reach high vacuum and to be cooled down. Problems found along the way have been solved and at the end all the probes work properly. Different sample holders have been designed and built according to the needs in each experiment. The system has been tested by reproducing experimental results with Mn12-acetate, as quantum tunneling and magnetic avalanches, and by obtaining new results on microwave transmission in thin TiN films. The second part of the thesis focuses on the measurements of thin TiN films in a dilution refrigerator working with a mixture of 3He and 4He that enables experiments at a few tens of millikelvins. The cryostat also contains a superconductor magnet which can apply a magnetic field up to 5 T. Low-temperature transport properties of nanoperforated superconducting TiN films have been experimentally studied. Resistance measurements have been performed in the critical region of the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT), applying the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the structure or the dc current through the sample. SIT is a transition from a superconductor to an insulator state by localizing the Cooper pairs. The evolution of the SIT with temperature, magnetic field and dc current has been investigated in detail. Characteristic parameters have been determined for as-cast thin films using the theory of quantum corrections to conductivity. Disorder-driven and field-induced SITs have been measured. Commensurability effects have been observed down to the lowest experimental temperature, and are emphasized in the more disordered samples. The SIT has been observed for a dc current applied across the sample as changes in the curvature at zero bias current. Experiments prove that electronic transport in the nanoperforated samples is mediated by Andreev conversion. Finally, the existence of the superinsulator state has been experimentally proved.
[cat] El treball que es presenta en aquesta tesi consta de dues parts ben diferenciades. La primera pretén el desenvolupament d’un equip experimental concebut per a l’estudi de propietats magnètiques i elèctriques en materials diversos i, en especial, el treball amb radiació de microones en condicions de reflexió i transmissió. La segona s’ha centrat en les mesures de transport d’una capa fina superconductora de nitrur de titani (TiN) de 5 nm de gruix en un criòstat de dilució.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Física Fonamental

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