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Title: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core biosynthesis in "Proteus mirabilis"
Other Titles: Estudio de la biosíntesis del núcleo de lipopolisacarido (LPS) en "Proteus mirabilis"
Author: Aquilini, Eleonora
Director: Regué Queralt, Miguel, 1953-
Keywords: Infeccions del tracte urinari
Infecciones del aparato urinario
Urinary tract infections
Proteus mirabilis
Issue Date: 11-Jan-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] Urinary tract infection (UTIs) is an extremely common disease. Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of UTI in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities or with long-term catheterization, it forms bladder and kidney stones as a consequence of urease-mediated urea hydrolysis. Known virulence factors, besides urease, are flagella, fimbriae, outer membrane proteins, hemolysins, amino acid deaminase, protease, capsule and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Study of LPS core is particularly relevant for several reasons: it is a conserved region, although it is increasingly clear that there is some variability at the genus or groups of similar genera, its chemical structure modulates the endotoxic activity of lipid A, alteration of the LPS core, which generates less virulent bacteria, encourages the search of substances that interfere with the biosynthesis of this region, and conserved regions of the core LPS could be useful as antigens in preventing diseases caused by pathogens that contain these conserved regions. The specific aims of this project have been to identify and functionally characterize genes involved in core LPS biosynthesis in P. mirabilis, to elucidate the mechanism of incorporation of galactosamine (GalN) to the core LPS, to identify genes coding for phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) modifications, and to characterize and to study the biological effects of the gene encoding the PEtN transferase involved in the modification of the second heptose residue (L,D-HepII). We found that P. mirabilis has most of the genes for the biosynthesis of LPS core grouped in the waa cluster in the chromosome. Despite this, additional genes required for core LPS biosynthesis are found outside the waa cluster. The pentasaccharide of the inner core, shared by all Enterobacteriaceae, is biosynthesized in P. mirabilis, by the sequential activity of a bifunctional transferase (WaaA) and three heptosyltransferases (WaaC, WaaF, and WaaQ). These enzymes are transcribed from genes located inside the waa cluster, and are conserved in P. mirabilis strains analyzed; for more, they show a high identity and similarity level to homologues proteins of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella penumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The waaL gene, coding for the O-antigen polymerase ligase, is found adjacent to the classic waa cluster. Downstream this gene, four genes encoding enzymes belonging to the 4 (walM, walN, and WalR), and 9 (walO) glycosyltransferase family were found. Even if members of these families were related to LPS core biosynthesis in several Gram-negative bacteria, in P. mirabilis they do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis of the reported core LPS structures. The presence of the disaccharide hexosamine (HexN)-1,4-galacturonic acid (GalA) is a feature of P. mirabilis LPS outer core. Depending on the nature of the HexN outer core residue, two different homologues for N-acetyl-hexosamine transferases are present in the waa cluster: wabH or wabP. Altought the incorporation of glucosamine into LPS core requires an acetylglucosaminyltransferase (WabH) and a deacetilase (WabN), the incorporation of GalN requires three enzymes: an acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (WabP), a deacetilase (WabN) and an epimerase (gne). An amplification test with specific primers for this two different homologues can be used to predict the HexN nature in P. mirabilis LPS cores. The strain-specific genes wamB and wamC code for a galactosyltransferase and a heptosyltransferase respectively in strain R110 of P. mirabilis. The enzyme encoded by gene wamD is a N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, and it is found in strain 51/57 of P. mirabilis. WamA, coded by wamA gene in the waa cluster of strains R110, 50/57, TG83 and HI4320, is a heptosyltransferase responsible for the incorporation of a quarter residue of heptose (Hep), in DD configuration, to the GalA II of the outer core. In P. mirabilis strain 51/57, a gene coding a protein of the Mig-14 family was identified inside the waa cluster, this localization appears to be an exception in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Inspection of the whole genome of P. mirabilis HI4320 did not allow the identification of a mig-14 similar gene. There are three putative PEtN transferases in the genome of P. mirabilis: PMI3040, PMI3576, and PMI3104. The gene identified as eptC (PMI3104) transfers the moiety of PEtN to the O-6 position of L,D-Hep II (HepII6PEtN). The absence of the positive charge due to PEtN residue doesn't affect the bacterial growth kinetics in lab conditions in rich or defined media, but causes a moderate destabilization of the outer-membrane. Despite the lack of the PEtN residue on the Hep II in P. mirabilis LPS core, has no statistically effects during urinary tract infection assays in mouse model, the absence of this modification causes an increase sensitivity to complement in non-immune human sera.
[spa] P. mirabilis no es una causa frecuente de infecciones urinarias en el huésped normal, más bien infecta el tracto urinario con alteraciones funcionales o anatómicas, o instrumentación crónica como el cateterismo. P. mirabilis está a menudo asociado con cálculos urinarios e incrustaciones de los catéteres y es, particularmente importante, en pacientes con cateterización prolongada. Las infecciones del tracto urinario asociadas a cateterización son mundialmente reconocidas como la causa más común de infección asociada a tratamientos en ambiente hospitalario. El LPS es un factor de virulencia importante en bacterias Gram negativas patógenas. También conocido como endotoxina, es una molécula glicolipídica que constituye la estructura mayoritaria de la cara externa de la membrana externa (OM). En Proteus mirabilis la mayoría de los genes responsables de la biosíntesis de núcleo de LPS están localizados en el cromosoma, en el agrupamiento génico waa. A pesar de esto, algunos genes adicionales, necesarios para la biosíntesis del núcleo de LPS, se encuentran ubicados fuera del agrupamiento génico waa. El pentasacárido del núcleo interno, común a todas las Enterobacteriáceae, se biosintetiza en P. mirabilis, por la actividad secuencial de una transferasa bifunciona (WaaA) y tres heptosiltransferasas (WaaC, WaaF, y WaaQ). La presencia del disacárido HexN‐1,4‐GalA es característica del núcleo externo de LPS en P. mirabilis. Dependiendo de la naturaleza del residuo de HexN, se encuentran, en el agrupamiento génico waa, dos HexNAc transferasas diferentes: wabH o wabP. El gen eptC (PMI3104) codifica para la enzima que transfiere el residuo de fosfoetanolamina a la posición O-6 de la L,D-Hep II (HepII6PEtN), en el núcleo de LPS de P. mirabilis. La ausencia de la carga positiva del residuo de fosfoetanolamina no afecta a la cinética de crecimiento de las bacterias en condiciones standard de laboratorio sea en medios ricos o definidos. La ausencia del residuo fosfoetanolamina provoca una desestabilización moderada de la membrana externa que se traduce en una disminución de la MIC para SDS.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitàries

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