Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/42582
Title: Evaluación de la efectividad de un programa de gestión de casos para pacientes esquizofrénicos en centros de salud mental
Other Titles: Assessment of the effectiveness of a case management programme for schizophrenic patients in mental health centres
Author: Mas-Expósito, Laia
Director: Amador, Juan Antonio
Gómez Benito, Juana
Keywords: Psicoteràpia
Psicoterapia
Psychotherapy
Gestió de casos
Gestión de casos
Case management
Validació d'instruments
Validación de instrumentos
Instrument validation
Trastorn mental sever
Trastorno mental severo
Severe mental disorder
Esquizofrenia
Esquizofrènia
Schizophrenia
Issue Date: 23-Jan-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] El objetivo principal de esta tesis es evaluar la efectividad de un programa de gestión de casos frente a un programa de atención estándar en personas con esquizofrenia. El objetivo principal se operacionalizó en tres objetivos consecutivos. Del objetivo preliminar surge el Estudio 1 que revisa la literatura sobre la gestión de casos. La gestión de casos ha experimentado importantes cambios y los modelos tradicionales están en desuso. Los resultados de las revisiones metanalíticas sobre la eficacia de la gestión de casos son heterogéneos. Las características de los pacientes y la fidelidad al programa podrían estar asociadas a los efectos de la gestión de casos. Se sugiere el desarrollo de estrategias de gestión de casos que ofrezcan diferentes grados de intensidad según las necesidades del paciente. Del objetivo intermedio surgen los estudios 2, 3 y 4. Estos estudios se han centrado en la validación, en población con esquizofrenia, de la World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version, la Disability Assessment Schedule Short Form y la DUKE-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Las tres escalas muestran puntuaciones fiables y válidas, y son instrumentos útiles para la valoración psicosocial de esta población. Del objetivo específico se derivan los estudios 5 y 6. El estudio 5 incide en el conocimiento de las necesidades de los pacientes con esquizofrenia asignados a un programa de gestión de casos. Se hace una propuesta de criterios y de variables a considerar cuando se incluya a un paciente en dicho programa así como de reconfiguración del mismo. El estudio 6 analiza la efectividad de un programa de gestión de casos frente a un programa de atención estándar. El grupo de pacientes en gestión de casos muestra peor funcionamiento y mayor uso de servicios que el grupo en programa estándar en la evaluación inicial. Al seguimiento, ambos grupos mejoran y el grupo en gestión de casos alcanza niveles similares a los del grupo en atención estándar en la mayoría de variables. Esta tesis profundiza en el conocimiento de dos modalidades de tratamiento comunitario del Servicio Catalán de Salud. Ambas son efectivas y podrían ofrecerse consecutivamente según necesidades del paciente.
[eng] The psychiatric deinstitutionalization leaded to an increase of community resources for persons with Severe Mental Illness (SMI). These resources include the so-called case management programs that aim to organize, coordinate and integrate the resources available for patient care through continuous contact with one or more key workers. The Mental Health Strategy of the Spanish National Health System (2007) recommends case management programs for the coordination, access and use of mental health resources. However, these programs are not implemented throughout and there are differences between Autonomous Communities. In Catalonia, these programs are available at Adult Mental Health Mental Health Care Centres of the State Mental Health Network of the Catalan Health Service. Specifically, the Severe Mental Illness Specific Care Program, known as PAE-TMS, covers the health care for most patients with SMI so it is particularly important to assess its effectiveness. This PhD thesis addresses this issue and its main objective is to assess the effectiveness of the PAE-TMS versus a standard treatment program (STP) in persons with schizophrenia. This objective was operationalized in three consecutive objectives: 1) preliminary objective: literature review of case management; 2) intermediate objective: validation of assessment instruments in persons with schizophrenia, and 3) specific objective: to improve knowledge of the needs of patients with schizophrenia included in the PAE-TMS and analyze its effectiveness. Each goal is associated with one or more studies. The preliminary objective leads to study 1. It reviews the literature regarding the origins, principles, tasks, models and effects of case management programs. This study shows that case management has undergone major changes over time and that the traditional models seem not to be in use, as evidenced by the most recent models. The results of meta-analytic reviews of the effectiveness of case management programs are diverse. Recent studies suggest that some variables, such as patient characteristics and fidelity to the program, may be associated with the effectiveness of case management. It is suggested, therefore, the development of case management strategies that may offer different degrees of intensity depending on patients’ needs. The intermediate goal leads to studies 2, 3 and 4. These studies are psychometric and have focused on the validation in persons with schizophrenia of the following instruments: the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version, the Disability Assessment Schedule Short Form and the DUKE-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The three instruments showed good psychometric properties. Their scores are reliable and valid and, therefore, are useful and appropriate for the assessment of quality of life, disability and social support in persons with schizophrenia. The specific goal leads to studies 5 and 6. The study 5 provides a better understanding of the needs of patients with schizophrenia assigned to the PAE-TMS or the STP. We suggest criteria and variables that may be considered when assigning a patient to the PAE-TMS. Considering these variables, we suggest a reconfiguration of the program by means of the addition of evidence-based elements. The study 6 assesses the effectiveness of the PAE-TMS versus the STP. At baseline, the group of patients in the PAE-TMS showed a profile characterized by worse clinical and psychosocial functioning and greater use of services than patients in the STP. At one year follow-up, both groups improved and the group in the PAE-TMS achieved a similar level to that in the STP group in most outcomes. This PhD thesis provides a deeper insight into two modalities of care that target the care of most of persons with SMI in the Catalan Health Service. The PAE-TMS and the STP are effective and could be offered consecutively according to patients’ needs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/42582
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Personalitat, Avaluació i Tractament Psicològic

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