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Title: The neural correlates of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia / Els correlats neurals del dèficit cognitiu en l’esquizofrènia
Author: Ortiz Gil, Jordi
Director/Tutor: Junqué i Plaja, Carme, 1955-
Pomarol-Clotet, Edith
Keywords: Esquizofrènia
Trastorns de la cognició
Ressonància magnètica
Cognition disorders
Magnetic resonance
Issue Date: 14-Sep-2012
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] Background: In recent years it has become recognized that schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment, which affects particularly executive function and memory. Although cognitive impairment implies brain damage or dysfunction, little is known about the relationship of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia to the structural and functional brain abnormalities that characterize the disorder. Aims and hypothesis: This study aimed to identify structural and/or functional brain abnormalities associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. According to the literature reviewed, the general hypothesis is that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients are reflected in both structural and functional brain changes. Accordingly, we expect that patients with cognitive impairment will have more GM reductions and more dysfunctional patterns of brain activity than patents without such deficits. Method. structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry was carried out in 26 cognitively impaired and 23 cognitively preserved schizophrenia patients, plus 39 matched controls. Nineteen cognitively impaired patients, 18 cognitively preserved patients and 34 controls also underwent fMRI during performance of a working memory task. Some subjects, partly corresponding to the ones participating in the neuroimaging study, were also administered a battery of tests of different cognitive functions. Altogether, 25 participants with schizophrenia and relatively preserved cognitive function, 29 with impaired functions and 22 healthy participants were included in this part of the study. Results: The participants with cognitive impairment in executive functioning and memory also perform worse on visuospatial and language tasks when compared to other patients intact in memory and executive function and controls. These differences are independent of estimated premorbid IQ. No differences were found between the cognitively intact and cognitively impaired groups in lateral ventricular volume or whole brain volume. Voxel-based morphometry also failed to reveal clusters of significant difference in either GM or WM volume between the two patient groups. However, during performance of the n-back task, the cases with schizophrenia and impaired cognitition showed hypoactivation compared to the cognitively intact patients in DLPFC among other brain regions. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that structural brain abnormality in schizophrenia is a function of having the disorder, not the cognitive impairment that accompanies it. In contrast, a substantial part of the task-related functional imaging abnormality appears to reflect cognitive impairment.
[spa] MARCO: Los déficits cognitivos son una característica conocida de la esquizofrenia. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre su relación con las anormalidades cerebrales tanto estructurales como funcionales que caracterizan dicha enfermedad. OBJETIVOS: Identificar las alteraciones estructurales y/o funcionales asociadas al déficit cognitivo en la esquizofrenia. MÉTODO: Se adquirió imágenes de resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) y morfometría basada en el vóxel (VBM) en 26 participantes que tenían alteraciones cognitivas y 23 que presentaban una cognición relativamente preservada, todos con esquizofrenia, así como en 39 controles apareados. Diecinueve de quienes presentaban déficits cognitivos y 18 de los preservados cognitivamente y 24 controles también ejecutaron una tarea n-back de memoria de trabajo durante la adquisición de imágenes de RMf. RESULTADOS: No se encontró diferencias entre los participantes con cognición preservada y quienes presentaban déficits cognitivos en el volumen de los ventrículos laterales ni tampoco en el volumen cerebral total. La VBM tampoco mostró clústers con diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en el volumen de sustancia blanca y gris. Sin embargo, durante la realización de la tarea n-back de memoria de trabajo, los participantes con alteración cognitiva presentaron hipoactivación en la corteza prefrontal dorsolateral, entre otras regiones, en relación a quienes mostraban una cognición preservada. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró evidencia de que los déficits cognitivos de la esquizofrenia sean una función de anormalidades cerebrales estructurales que acompañan a la enfermedad sino que se asociarían con un funcionamiento cerebral alterado.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clínica

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