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Title: The synthesis and application of bulky S-stereogenic and P- stereogenic chiral ligands
Author: Doran, Seán
Director: Verdaguer i Espaulella, Xavier
Keywords: Catàlisi asimètrica
Enantioselective catalysis
Catálisis asimétrica
Issue Date: 14-Dec-2012
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] This doctoral thesis was focused on the design and synthesis of novel chiral ligands for application in asymmetric catalysis. One of the best examples of asymmetric catalysis is the asymmetric hydrogenation reaction for its atom economy, ease of access to both S and R enantiomers and almost ultimate enantiomeric excess obtainable in a multitude of substrates. There has been much investigation into this reaction and there has been a plethora of chiral ligands designed which catalyze this reaction in high enantiomeric excess using metals such as rhodium, iridium and ruthenium. The vast majority of these ligands are diphosphines with their chirality lying either on the backbone of the ligand or on the coordinating phosphorus atom itself. In the beginning of this work investigation was undertook to explore the possibility of successfully employing a new type of ligand class in the asymmetric hydrogenation reaction, namely the N-phosphino sulfinamide or PNSO ligands. PNSO ligands had been successfully applied to the asymmetric Pauson-Khand reaction in the Riera group yielding cyclopentenone Pauson-Khand adducts in high yield and very high enantioselectivity. The family of PNSO ligands prepared in the Riera group was attractive because apart from the high yields and enantioselectivities obtained from the reactions in which they were used, they proved to be easily prepared in short syntheses from commercially available starting materials. It was believed if they could be successfully applied in asymmetric hydrogenation for their ease of preparation they would be an attractive alternative to the diphosphine ligand class. Unfortunately the first two PNSO-Rh complexes successfully prepared provided low enantioselectivities and difficulties were encountered while trying to prepare further analogues. After some time trying to achieve PNSO-Rh complex analogues unsuccessfully the direction of the project was shifted away from the N-phosphino sulfinamide ligand class in asymmetric hydrogenation. The MaxPhos ligand had recently been developed in the group and had proven highly promising. A study was demanded of its substrate scope as applied in rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. Substrates already described in the literature were prepared and the asymmetric hydrogenation of them catalyzed by the MaxPhos-Rh precatalyst was performed and conditions to do so were optimized. Of seven substrates prepared the MaxPhos-Rh proved to hydrogenate five of those with high enantioselectivity. The TOF of the MaxPhos rhodium catalyst applied in the hydrogenation of the Z-MAC substrate was examined by monitoring the flux of hydrogen and was calculated at 0.065 s-1. MaxPhos complexes of cobalt and palladium were prepared to form part of the investigation into widening the reaction scope of the ligand. [(MaxPhos)Co2(CO)4(C2H2)] proved to catalyze the Pauson-Khand reaction of norbornadiene and 1-hexyne with 24 % yield and 28 %, a noteworthy enantiomeric excess for the catalytic asymmetric Pauson-Khand reaction. Chalcogenated derivatives of MaxPhos were prepared. The diselenide was used to explore the electronic nature of the ligand. The MaxPhos-rhodium carbonyl stretching was examined. MaxPhos-BH3 was used to prepare mono-chalcogenated MaxPhos derivatives. They were applied also in asymmetric hydrogenation once complexed to rhodium but enantiomeric excess of no more than 21 % was obtained in the hydrogenation of the substrate Z-MAC. The aminophosphine, a chiral building block and key intermediate in the preparation of the MaxPhos ligand, was used in the attempt to prepare bulky chiral amidine ligands and although two such species were prepared they proved inapplicable in asymmetric catalysis.
[spa] Se desarrollaron los ligandos N-fosfino sulfinamida (PNSO) en el grupo de Riera para su aplicación en la reacción Pauson-Khand asimétrica. Se probaron que estos ligandos eran muy eficaces en esta reacción y daban rendimientos y enantioselectividades muy altos de los aductos Pauson-Khand. Probar la eficacia de estos ligandos PNSO en hidrogenación asimétrica formó parte de este trabajo. Se prepararon dos ligandos PNSO, se complejaron con rodio formando complejos neutros. Se protonaron los complejos neutros con ácido tetraflorobórico para formar los complejos catiónicos. Se usaron estos complejos de rodio- PNSO, tanto los complejos neutros como los catiónicos como catalizadores en la hidrogenación asimétrica del sustrato Z-MAC. Los complejos de rodio con el ligando PNSO substituido por el grupo tolilo en azufre no hidrogenaba el sustrato pero los complejos de rodio con el ligando PNSO dotado de tres grupos tert-butilos hidrogenaba el sustrato aunque con baja selectividad. Después de un tiempo intentando conseguir análogos de ligandos tipo PNSO sin éxito se cambió la dirección del proyecto. Se decidió centrarse en el ligando MaxPHOS el cual había sido desarrollado recientemente en el grupo Riera. El ligando MaxPHOS demostró gran eficacia en hidrogenación asimétrica con dos sustratos pero se deseaba un estudio mas amplio del potencial del ligando así que se sintetizaron siete sustratos y se probó el catalizador MaxPHOS en la hidrogenación asimétricas de esos sustratos. El catalizador MaxPHOS-Rh proporcionó excesos enantioméricos muy altos en cinco de los siete sustratos. Se hizo un estudio de las propiedades electrónicas del ligando MaxPHOS aprovechando los estudios de (31)P RMN y el MaxPHOS diselenuro lo cual se preparó anteriormente. También se estudió el “stretching” carbonilo del complejo MaxPHOS-Rh. Se demostró que el ligando MaxPHOS era menos rico en electronos que el ligando trichickenfootphos. Se prepararon complejos de MaxPHOS con paladio y cobalto para examinar la eficacia del ligando en reacciones mas allá de hidrogenación asimétrica como la reacción Pauson–Khand catalítica asimétrica. Se sintetizaron varios derivados del ligando MaxPHOS a partir de los intermedios clave en la preparación del ligando y se probaron en hidrogenación asimétrica proporcionando excesos enantioméricos bajos.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Química Orgànica

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