Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/43092
Title: Changes in Swing High Bar Performance and Coordination: Skill Acquisition and Fine Tuning Skill
Author: Busquets Faciabén, Albert
Director: Angulo Barroso, Rosa Maria
Marina Evrard, Michel
Keywords: Gimnàstica
Condicions inicials
Coneixement motriu
Aprenentatge motor-perceptiu
Issue Date: 10-Mar-2010
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] Numerous motor-perceptual tasks can be observed across the ages, especially if individuals are involved in sport activities. A person facing a novel task has to elaborate new movements to achieve the task goal (skill acquisition period). To become more successful and efficient, that is, to be an expert in a learned task, the subject must adjusts movement parameters depending on many constraints (fine tuning skill period). From a Dynamic System Theory perspective, movement arises from the relative impact of practice and constraints (organismic, task, and environmental). Focusing in the organismic constraints, the a-priory talent is a critical point for understanding motor learning in the skill acquisition period. In addition, the age of the performer must be specially considered in the fine tuning skill period due to the biological maturational and expertise processes taking place with time. The overarching goal of this thesis was to characterize both periods of learning (skill acquisition and fine tuning process) from a dynamical system theory perspective focusing in the longswing as a sport skill. We observed that skill level (a-priori talent) can affect the learning process when a person faces a novel task. While swing amplitude is not impacted by the initial skill level, perceptual and motor learning (performance and coordination) in the downswing have larger improvements when initial skill level is closer to expert values. We proposed that flexion events' placement (P3H, P3S) and time lag between hip flexion and shoulder flexion actions during upswing (P3H-P3S) are critical in biomechanical terms, but coordination mode of the extension actions (P2H, P2S) is critical to increase swing amplitude in coordinative terms. Focusing in the fine tuning skill, our research showed that competition age groups swing amplitude was similar from G3 (12.88±0.50 years) to G5 (19.96±3.37 years). However, events are acquired progressively (from G3 to G5) in agreement with their spatial-temporal performance sequence. In contrast, our results only differentiated coordination modes of the beginners (G1, 8.92±0.85 years) and experts (G5). Interestingly, we observed increased changes in the within subject variability in G4 (14.78±0.57 years) suggesting a transition point. It was suggested that this transition point could be due to increased demands of the sport (learning flight elements, dismounts). These changes in variability mainly occurred in P3 variables (i.e. flexion actions during upswing). We proposed that interventions should be focused in P3 to acquire expert motor strategies. Finally, we proposed a conceptual model to understand the longswing learning process and to improve the intervention of the practitioners. Our results indicated that spatial-temporal sequences of the longswing actions appear to be learned before their dynamic control. In addition, adequate coordination of the previous action conditioned learning of the subsequent action. Decreases in the within subject variability of the coordination variables may indicate that the coordinative mode of the events (P1: flexion actions during downswing, P2: extension actions, and P3: flexion actions during upswing) are acquired. After such achievement, the intervention of the practitioner can be focused in the placement of the subsequent event. KEYWORDS: Motor-perceptual learning; Motor behavior; Initial conditions; Practice effects; Novice; Experts; Gymnastics
[spa] Gran número de tareas perceptivo-motoras pueden ser observadas a través de la edad, especialmente en actividades deportivas. Una persona que se enfrenta a una nueva tarea tiene que elaborar nuevos movimientos para conseguir el objetivo de la tarea (periodo de adquisición de la habilidad, PAH). Para ser más eficaz y eficiente (i.e. experto) el sujeto tiene que ajustar los parámetros del movimiento en relación con los condicionantes de la situación (periodo de modificación fina de la habilidad, PMFH). Desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de los Sistemas Dinámicos (DST), el movimiento surge por el impacto de la práctica y de los condicionantes (del organismo, de la tarea y del entorno). En cuanto a los condicionantes del organismo, el talento a priori es un punto crítico para entender el aprendizaje motor en el PAH. Además, la edad del ejecutante debe ser considerado en el PMFH debido a que otros dos procesos se desarrollan paralelamente: la maduración biológica y la adquisición de competencia. El objetivo general de esta tesis es caracterizar ambos periodos de aprendizaje (PAH y PMFH) desde la perspectiva de la DST focalizándonos en el molino de barra fija como habilidad deportiva. Durante el PAH el talento a priori afectó el proceso de aprendizaje de los participantes al enfrentarse a una tarea nueva. Así, a pesar que la amplitud del balanceo mejoró por igual en participantes con mayor y menor talento a priori, el aprendizaje perceptivo y motor (ejecución y coordinación) en la bajada del balanceo tuvo grandes mejoras cuando en los participantes de mayor talento a-priori. En el PMFH la amplitud de balanceo de los grupos de edad de competición era similar desde G3 (12.88±0.50 años) a G5 (19.96±3.37 años). No obstante, los eventos fueron adquiridos progresivamente (desde G3 a G5) de acuerdo con la secuencia espacio-temporal de realización durante la tarea y parece que fueron aprendidos antes que su control dinámico (coordinación). También, se observaron incrementos en los cambios en la variabilidad intra-sujeto en el G4 (14.78±0.57 años) que sugirieron un punto de transición debido probablemente al incremento en las demandas del deporte (aprendiendo elementos de vuelo, salidas).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/43092
ISBN: 9788469333730
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Teoria i Història de l'Educació

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
ABF_THESIS.pdf4.12 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.