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Title: Allosteric conversation in the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain surfaces
Author: Grosdidier, Solène
Carbó, Laia R.
Buzón Redorta, Victor
Brooke, Greg
Nguyen, Phuong
Baxter, John D.
Bevan, Charlotte
Webb, Paul
Estébanez Perpiñá, Eva
Fernández-Recio, Juan
Keywords: Receptors nuclears (Bioquímica)
Càncer de pròstata
Nuclear receptors (Biochemistry)
Prostate cancer
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2012
Publisher: Endocrine Society
Abstract: Androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target that plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer (PCa) and androgen insensitivity syndromes. We previously proposed that compounds recruited to ligand-binding domain (LBD) surfaces could regulate AR activity in hormone-refractory PCa and discovered several surface modulators of AR function. Surprisingly, the most effective compounds bound preferentially to a surface of unknown function [binding function 3 (BF-3)] instead of the coactivator-binding site [activation function 2 (AF-2)]. Different BF-3 mutations have been identified in PCa or androgen insensitivity syndrome patients, and they can strongly affect AR activity. Further, comparison of AR x-ray structures with and without bound ligands at BF-3 and AF-2 showed structural coupling between both pockets. Here, we combine experimental evidence and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate whether BF-3 mutations affect AR LBD function and dynamics possibly via allosteric conversation between surface sites. Our data indicate that AF-2 conformation is indeed closely coupled to BF-3 and provide mechanistic proof of their structural interconnection. BF-3 mutations may function as allosteric elicitors, probably shifting the AR LBD conformational ensemble toward conformations that alter AF-2 propensity to reorganize into subpockets that accommodate N-terminal domain and coactivator peptides. The induced conformation may result in either increased or decreased AR activity. Activating BF-3 mutations also favor the formation of another pocket (BF-4) in the vicinity of AF-2 and BF-3, which we also previously identified as a hot spot for a small compound. We discuss the possibility that BF-3 may be a protein-docking site that binds to the N-terminal domain and corepressors. AR surface sites are attractive pharmacological targets to develop allosteric modulators that might be alternative lead compounds for drug design.
Note: Reproducció del document publicat a:
It is part of: Molecular Endocrinology, 2012, vol. 26, num. 7, p. 1078-1090
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ISSN: 0888-8809
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular)

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