Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/48869
Title: Photo-Fenton and Slow Sand Filtration coupling for hydroponics water reuse
Author: Micó Reche, Mª del Mar
Director: Sans Mazón, Carme
Keywords: Depuració de l'aigua
Reutilització de l'aigua
Oxidació
Plaguicides
Biologia molecular
Water purification
Water reuse
Oxidation
Pesticides
Molecular biology
Issue Date: 11-Oct-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] Esta tesis se enmarca en la colaboración entre el Departamento de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad de Barcelona y el Departamento de I+D de Acciona Agua S.A.U, en el marco del Proyecto CENIT- MEDIODIA (2007-2010). Esta iniciativa la componen un consorcio de empresas un consorcio de empresas y centros de investigación que unieron esfuerzos de innovación en el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de Invernaderos Hidropónicos Avanzados. La colaboración entre la Universidad de Barcelona y Acciona Agua se centró en la optimización de los recursos hídricos de dichos invernaderos. Así se evaluó la funcionalidad de un tratamiento combinado que integrara un Proceso de Oxidación Avanzada (reacción foto-Fenton), y un reactor biológico (columna de arena de filtración lenta), aplicados a la corriente de desecho de un sistema de recirculación de lixiviados provenientes del nombrado invernadero avanzado. Las particularidades de dicho sistema de reciclado harían que el sistema combinado tuviese que trabajar con efluentes con alto contenido en pesticidas (metomilo, imidacloprid y fosetyl-Al, fueron escogidos para simular los lixiviados de invernadero) y conductividades entre 11 y 50 mS•cm-1. De este modo el principal objetivo del proceso integrado sería el de conseguir la máxima eliminación de los compuestos xenobióticos y de la carga orgánica que los acompañe en el efluente tratado. Así pues, la experimentación se llevó a cabo frente a tres aspectos relacionados con el sistema combinado: estudio de la reacción foto-Fenton, ensayos con biorreactores, y empleo de herramientas de biología molecular (MBT, en sus siglas en inglés) aplicadas a la caracterización de la biomasa desarrollada en los biorreactores ensayados. Según los resultados obtenidos, se llegó a la conclusión de que la combinación de la reacción foto-Fenton y la columna de filtración lenta podría ser una alternativa de tratamiento eficaz para la aplicación de las estrategias de reciclaje de los lixiviados hidroponía presentadas en Proyecto CENIT-MEDIODIA. Además, MBT se revelaron como poderosas herramientas para caracterizar la población microbiana de distintos biorreactores y las funciones que desempeñan.
[eng]The collaboration between the University of Barcelona and Acciona Agua was focused on optimizing greenhouses hydric resources. The functionality of a combined treatment had to be assessed, when applied to the discard stream of a recycling system of the Advanced Greenhouse leachates. The coupling consisted on an Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP), photo-Fenton, based on hydroxyl radical oxidative potential, produced by the interaction between Fe2+ and H2O2, and a slow sand filtration column acting as a bioreactor. The recycling system will require the synergy of chemical and biological processes to be able to work efficiently with the particular characteristics of greenhouses effluents: high salinity content and the presence of pesticides. Two recycling strategies proposed by the project defined two conductivity thresholds that the coupled system should be able to cope with. The first strategy proposed a simple semi-closed system that recycled nutrient solution from the hydroponics crops until a maximum value of 11 mS•cm(-1), phytotoxicity limit. Part of the current was then diverted to be treated by the integrated system. The second strategy introduced reverse osmosis membrane technology that concentrated that diverted stream, sending the permeate for its reuse directly to the greenhouse, while the brine had to be treated by the coupled process. In this case the maximum level of salinity in the effluents could reach conductivities close to those for seawater, around 50 mS•cm(-1). The performance of photo-Fenton reaction was essayed in order to improve the knowledge regarding this treatment technique. On the first place, this AOP and the ozonation process were compared. Results shown that increasing toxicity of ozonation effluents confirmed the choice of photo-Fenton as the most adequate treatment for pesticide polluted effluents. Experimental design criteria allowed then to determine optimal working conditions depending on the content of the reaction media, and enabled to prove the existence of endogenous catalyst inhibition in the presence of fosetyl-Al. Salinity essays were finally performed, yielding positive results even for highest conductivity effluents. Those positive results were also reflected in the increase of the biodegradability of the treated effluents, what leaded to the next step of the research. Biocompatibility of pretreated effluents was essayed by means of sequencing batch reactors (SBR). These devices were used to show how photo-Fenton indeed increased biodegradability of the effluents, and how it grown until a certain point when more hydrogen peroxide did not lead to better results. They were also utilized to assess the biocompatibility of high salinity pretreated effluents, as a first step towards the coupling with the slow sand filtration at high conductivities. Results obtained were extremely encouraging, given that even for the highest salinity concentrations (10 and 50 mS•cm(-1)), the performance of the bioreactor achieved an organic content reduction for more than 80% of the loaded concentration, which compared to the 10-20% removal achieved by photo-Fenton, justifies the need of combining both treatments. Guided by those positive results, the load of the slow sand filtration column with different salinity pretreated effluents was performed. Also positive results were obtained. The achieved elimination of the organic content was more than 75% when loaded with 10 mS•cm-1 effluent, and the refractory fraction (the remaining organic matter that cannot be oxidized either by photo-Fenton reaction or by the biomass metabolism) was the lowest also for this high conductivity. Molecular biology tools, MTBs, used in this thesis were based on cloning and sequencing techniques of 16S rRNA genes. They allowed characterizing the bacterial population of one of the assessed SBRs and of the different loading stages of the slow sand filtration column. They showed how with the increase of salinity, the population in the slow sand filtration column loosed diversity, despite the fact that the performance of the column was still proficient. This fact stated how a very different microbial consortium could be developing the same functions as others. According to obtained results, it could be finally concluded that the coupling between photo-Fenton reaction and slow sand filtration column could be an effective treatment alternative for implementing the recycling strategies of hydroponics greenhouse leachates proposed by CENIT-MEDIODIA Project. For its part, MBTs were revealed as powerful tools to characterize microbial population and increase the understanding of the bioreactions taking part in bioremediation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/48869
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Enginyeria Química

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