Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/49024
Title: Chemical and microbial ecology of thc demosponge Aplysina aerophoba = Ecología química y microbiana de la demosponja Aplysina aerophoba
Author: Sacristán Soriano, Oriol
Director: Becerro, Mikel A.
Keywords: Ecologia química
Ecologia microbiana
Simbiosi
Esponges
Productes naturals
Chemical ecology
Microbial ecology
Symbiosis
Sponges
Natural products
Issue Date: 4-Oct-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] El filo Porifera (Grant, 1836) está compuesto por metazoos sésiles con un sistema acuífero diferenciado del que forman parte los coanocitos que generan un flujo de agua unidireccional. A pesar de no presentar auténticos tejidos, las esponjas pueden llegar a desarrollar dos regiones bien definidas, el ectosoma (capa externa) y el coanosoma (región interna). Estos organismos representan un grupo ecológicamente importante del bentos marino con gran capacidad de adaptación y dispersión en muchos hábitats, contribuyendo así en la organización y funcionamiento a nivel de comunidad y ecosistema. Una de las claves del éxito evolutivo de las esponjas yace en la relación estrecha que presentan desde el Precámbrico con microorganismos a través de la cual desarrollaron una protección química. Muchas esponjas habrían utilizado los metabolitos secundarios de origen microbiano como defensa química. A día de hoy se han desarrollado dos áreas de investigación, la ecología química y la microbiana de esponjas, de las que realmente desconocemos su origen o su impacto. Dado el vacío existente de estudios que evalúen la comunidad bacteriana de esponjas como fuente de compuestos bioactivos, teníamos la oportunidad de integrar estos dos campos de la ecología de esponjas investigando la relación entre productos naturales y microorganismos simbiontes, con el fin de entender la funcionalidad de la comunidad bacteriana en el huésped. Esta tesis fue concebida para estudiar la ecología química y microbiana de la esponja Aplysina aerophoba (Nardo, 1833), cuya química y comunidad bacteriana asociada han sido objeto de muchos estudios previos. El principal objetivo fue explorar las fuentes de variación tanto de los productos naturales adscritos a Aplysina como de su estructura microbiana e inferir una posible relación entre comunidad de microorganismos y la producción de metabolitos secundarios. La aproximación que utilizamos consistía en explorar la variabilidad natural de los compuestos bioactivos y de la estructura microbiana de la esponja Aplysina aerophoba a distintas escalas espaciales (desde pocos centímetros hasta miles de kilómetros) y temporales (meses, años), y evaluar el efecto de factores ambientales, como la luz, en los perfiles químicos y microbianos. Posteriormente, correlacionar ambos patrones de variación e inferir alguna asociación potencial entre productos naturales y simbiontes microbianos. Resumiendo, la producción de metabolitos secundarios en esponjas y la composición filogenética de la microbiota asociada depende esencialmente de la especie de esponja, de los factores ecológicos con variación espacial y temporal, como también del estado del huésped (si presenta o no estrés). La combinación entre factores abióticos y bióticos determinará en última instancia la abundancia de defensas químicas y la diversidad microbiana debido a una autorregulación entre ambos tipos de factores
[eng] Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836) are sessile metazoans with a differentiated inhalant and exhalant aquiferous system with external pores. Lacking a tissue grade of construction, sponges can reach two well-differentiated regions, the ectosome (external layer free of choanocytes) and the choanosome (internal region with choanocytes). As the most likely primitive metazoans, their challenging structural organization, physiology for biocalcification and trophic requirements allowed sponges to rapidly colonize distinct environments and built important sponge reefs during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, making them an ecologically relevant group principally in marine benthic communities. To date, sponges are still ecologically important among benthic fauna although the role as reef builders in modern coral reefs has changed in favor of scleractinian corals. Nonetheless, sponges have demonstrated a huge capacity to adapt and spread in many habitats contributing to organization and functioning at both community and ecosystem levels. One of the keys of the evolutionary success of this group lies in the close association between sponges and microbes that dates back to the Precambrian era. The need to be defended may have arisen from the lack of motility of sponges and several mechanisms emerged to fulfill their demand including a chemical protection. Many sponges would have taken advantage of associated microbes to use their metabolites as a defense barrier against predators, competitors or foulers. This particular symbiosis has consequently become a key factor in biotic interactions within the sponge research. To date, chemical ecology and microbial ecology are two independent areas of the sponge research with ecological implications that occasionally converge at the same point. We want to analyze the evolution of the sponge chemical and microbial ecology from the very beginning, to quantify their impact on the scientific community, and to compare both research areas. This PhD dissertation has been conceived to study the chemical and microbial ecology of sponges using the demosponge Aplysina aerophoba (Nardo, 1833) as a model species because its secondary chemistry and its associated microbial community are well studied and it is quite abundant in our study area (Northwestern Mediterranean and Canary Islands). Beyond the knowledge achieved about the major chemistry and bacterial assemblages in A. aerophoba, we have been able to explore the variation sources of the natural products and the sponge microbial consortium. Additionally, we have assessed the putative relationships between the host bacterial community and the production of secondary metabolites in this species. We explored changes in the abundance of secondary metabolites and the relative composition of bacterial assemblages in A. aerophoba at multiple spatial (from few centimeters to thousand kilometers) and temporal (months and years) scales. The approach used allowed us to investigate which is the magnitude of the variance attributable to the distinct spatial and temporal scales and the most relevant scale at which the abundance of secondary metabolites and bacterial symbionts varied. We also investigated the relationship between natural products and microbial community structure by assessing whether both parameters covary at multiple scales. Finally, we experimentally addressed whether different light exposures can modify chemical and microbial profiles in the external and internal regions of A. aerophoba. In summary, the production of natural products in sponges and the abundance and phylogenetic composition of the host-associated microbial community mainly depend to a large extent on the sponge-species and the ecological factors with spatial and temporal variations (e.g., light, predation, competition, fouling). The host state (i.e., stress) is also a key factor that may be the main driver of symbiotic shifts causing a breakdown in the sponge health and making the symbiont communities unstable and likely the sponge chemical defense. The combination between abiotic and biotic factors may finally determine the concentration of bioactive compounds and associated microbial diversity as the abiotic environmental context can control the outcomes of biotic interactions, and biotic interactions often moderate the effect of abiotic factors. For that reason, it is not an easy task to actually figure out the factors that limit or enhance chemical and microbial variability. Further experiments and time-series observations are needed to reveal the underlying processes hidden.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/49024
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Biologia Animal

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