Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/49173
Title: Bases moleculares de la especificación del patrón dorso-ventral en Drosophila
Author: Andreu Sauqué, María José
Director: Jiménez Cañero, Gerardo
Keywords: Drosòfila
Expressió gènica
Drosophila
Gene expression
Issue Date: 28-Nov-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] La vía RTK/Ras/MAPK es una de las cascadas de señalización evolutivamente conservadas más común durante el desarrollo de los metazoos. En concreto, la vía de EGFR es una de las más destacadas en la inducción de respuestas espacialmente localizadas en Drosophila. Concretamente, en esta tesis hemos estudiado el modo en que la activación localizada de la vía RTK de EGFR en la región dorsal del epitelio folicular restringe la expresión del gen pipe a posiciones ventrales. Pipe codifica para un enzima con actividad sulfotransferasa que resulta esencial para la transmisión de información posicional desde el ovario hasta el embrión. Nuestros resultados han mostrado que la actividad de EGFR sobre pipe está mediada por el factor Mirror, el cual actúa como represor directo de pipe uniéndose a las secuencias reguladoras del gen. Además, hemos caracterizado un aspecto adicional de la regulación de pipe que depende de Capicua (Cic), un factor de transcripción inhibido por señales RTK en diversos sistemas. Así, hemos demostrado que Capicua mantiene la expresión de pipe en la región ventral del epitelio folicular reprimiendo a su vez a Mirror en esa región. Por otro lado, hemos analizado la relevancia de la regulación post-transcripcional negativa de Cic en respuesta a la señal de EGFR para el establecimiento de esta polaridad inicial durante la oogénesis. Proponemos un modelo en el que la regulación negativa de Cic por la vía de EGFR modula la distribución espacial de Mirror en las células foliculares laterales definiendo la posición precisa del borde de expresión de pipe. Finalmente, hemos estudiado la función de Capicua en respuesta a la señal RTK de Torso en el embrión temprano. Junto con resultados previos, nuestro trabajo ha mostrado que Capicua también participa en la subdivisión dorsoventral del embrión actuando como represor de genes cigóticos dorsales como zerknüllt, y que esta actividad se encuentra inhibida en regiones terminales por la vía de Torso.
[eng] RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling is one of the most common pathways for intercellular communication during development and in the adult organism. In addition, abnormal RTK signaling is associated with many pathological conditions, including cancer. Taking advantage of the available genetic tools of Drosophila, we use the DV axis specification as a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which RTK signaling regulates gene expression and how the same signaling pathway is interpreted differently in distinct tissues. Specifically, we have studied the mechanisms by which the localized activation of the RTK EGFR signaling pathway in the dorsal region of the follicular epithelium restricts pipe gene expression to ventral positions. pipe encodes a sulfotransferase enzyme which is essential for transfering DV polarity from the egg chamber to the embryo. Our results have shown that EGFR activity on pipe is mediated by Mirror, a homeodomain transcription factor induced by the pathway in dorsal-anterior cells. Mirror acts as a direct repressor of pipe by binding to a conserved motif (r1) in the pipe regulatory region. We also have characterized an additional aspect of pipe regulation that depends on Capicua (Cic), a HMG-box transcription factor post-transcriptionally downregulated by RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling. We have shown that the role of Cic is to support pipe expression in ventral follicle cells by repressing mirror in this region. On the other hand, we have analyzed the relevance of the negative post-transcriptional regulation of Cic by EGFR/Ras/MAPK signaling in the establishment of the initial DV asymmetries during oogenesis. Our results suggest a competition mechanism between Cic-mediated repression and EGFR-dependent and –independent activation of mirr, which leads to graded expression of mirr in dorsal and lateral follicle cells. We propose a model where the EGFR-dependent downregulation of Cic modulates the spatial distribution of Mirror protein in the lateral and dorsal-posterior follicle cells, where low, but functional Mirr activity defines the precise position at which the pipe expression border is formed. Finally, we have studied in collaboration with S. Y. Shvartsman group, the function of Cic in response to the RTK Torso signaling pathway in the early embryo. Together with previous results, our work has shown that Cic also participates in the DV subdivision of the embryo acting as a repressor of dorsal zygotic genes, as zerknüllt (zen), and that this activity is inhibited at the poles by Torso signaling. Taking together this result and other previous studies in collaboration with S. Y. Shvartsman group, we have proposed in a new model of gene regulation based in MAPK substrate competition. Molecular competition among MAPK substrates affects the expression of genes such as zen, reveals a new mechanism of integrating anterior, dorso-ventral and terminal systems. To summarize, in this thesis we show that different RTK/Ras/MAPK pathways with key roles in Drosophila development operate through common mechanisms that involve the post-transcriptional downregulation of Cic. By downregulating Cic activity, RTK signals create gradients or boundaries of Cic repressor activity that are then translated into complementary patterns of target gene expression. Since different Cic targets are regulated in different contexts, our results support the view that RTK specificity arises mainly at the level of downstream enhancers responding to general RTK effectors (including Cic) and additional ubiquitous and tissue-specific factors.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/49173
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Genètica

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