Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/49269
Title: Paleomagnetism and Thermochronology in Tertiary systectonic sediments of the South-central Pyrenees: Chronostratography, kinematic and exhumation constraints
Author: Beamud Amorós, Elisabet
Director: Muñoz, J. A.
Garcés Crespo, Miguel
Keywords: Thermochronology
Termocronologia
Paleomagnetisme
Paleontologia estratigràfica
Geocronologia
Pirineus
Paleomagnetism
Stratigraphic paleontology
Geochronology
Pyrenees
Issue Date: 23-Oct-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [cat]Aquesta tesi presenta l’evolució cinemàtica dels Pirineus centre-meridionals durant el Terciari a partir de la integració de dades magnetostratigràfiques, termocronològiques I magnetotectòniques del seu registre sinorogènic. La datació magnetostratigràfica dels conglomerats sintectònics de La Pobla de Segur, Senterada i Sis, fixa la seva edat en Eocè mig-Oligocè superior (cron 19r a cron 9n). Aquests resultats permeten establir una nova cronostratigrafia pels materials eocens-oligocens dels Pirineus centre-meridionals de la que deriven implicacions biocronològiques, ja que canvia substancialment les edats acceptades del nivells de referència europeus MP14 a MP17. Les edats magnetostratigràfiques s’han combinat amb termocronologia detrítica de blocs de granit dels conglomerats sintectònics. La termocronologia obtinguda varia de 63 a 27 Ma. Els models tèrmics revelen tres períodes de refredament ràpid relacionats amb el moviment de grans encavalcaments a la Zona Axial, destacant l’ocorregut a l’Eocè superior-Oligocè inferior degut al moviment de l’encavalcament de Rialp i a l’increment de relleu a la Zona Axial per underthrusting. L’annealing post-deposicional de les mostres estratigràficament més baixes suggereix que el cinturó de plecs i encavalcaments pirinenc va estar cobert per 2 km de materials. Els models tèrmics també suggereixen una exhumació ràpida al Miocè superior, relacionada amb la captura de l’Ebre al Mediterrani. Durant la sedimentació dels materials sinorogènics estudiats té lloc la formació de thrust salients als Pirineus meridionals entre els que destaca la Zona Obliqua d’Ainsa. L’estudi magnetotectònic dut a terme en aquesta zona revela rotacions verticals que varien de ~80º a Mediano a ~20º al nord d’Añisclo. L’edat de la rotació principal a la làmina de Gavarnie s’estableix en el Lutecià-Bartonià, quan eren actives totes les estructures de la Zona Obliqua d’Ainsa, i estaria causada per una diferència de 50 km en la quantitat de desplaçament de la làmina de Gavarnie controlada per la distribució de les sals triàsiques al seu desenganxament basal. La sincronia entre encavacalments i rotacions apunta a un model d’arc progressiu amb transport divergent. Aquests resultats revelen una estreta relació entre el registre estratigràfic dels materials sinorogènics, els encavalcaments i l’exhumació a la Zona Axial i l’evolució estructural del sistema d’envacalments dels Pirineus meridionals. Les forces tectòniques van controlar els patrons d’exhumació, l’evolució de la topografia sinorogènica de les conques intramuntanyoses i d’avantpaís i les característiques deposicionals dels sediments sinorogènics.
[eng]This PhD Thesis presents the Tertiary kinematic evolution of the South-Central Pyrenees from the integration of magnetostratigraphic, magnetotectonic and thermochronological analyses on its synorogenic sedimentary record. One of the main contributions of this PhD thesis is the continuous absolute dating of the syntectonic conglomerates of La Pobla de Segur, Senterada and Sis. Magnetostratigraphy of these materials establishes their deposition during Middle Eocene-Late Oligocene times (from chron 19r up to chron 9n). Integration of these results with previous magnetostratigraphic works within the Ainsa Basin has allowed the establishment of a new chronostratigraphy for the Eocene-Oligocene materials of the South-Central Pyrenees. The obtained chronostratigraphy has biochronological implications as it substantially changes the traditionally accepted ages of the European reference levels MP14 to MP17. MP14 and MP15 reference levels are proposed to correlate to Lutetian whereas MP16 and MP17 would be Bartonian in age. These results reveal that the correlation between the continental and marine Paleogene record needs further refinement and therefore, that the chronostratigraphic age attributions based on MP reference levels should be taken with caution. The magnetostratigraphic ages have been combined with detrital thermochronology on 13 granitic cobbles enclosed in the syntectonic conglomerates. The detrital apatite fission track ages obtained vary from 63 to 27 Ma. When these ages are combined with the stratigraphic ages, samples define 5 groups with thermochronological ages generally increasing down-section except in the most deeply buried ones due to post-depositional partial annealing. Thermal models reveal three periods of rapid-cooling within the Axial Zone due to movement on large-thrust sheets. A dramatic increase in exhumation rate occurred during the latest Eocene-Early Oligocene related to the onset of movement in the Rialp thrust sheet and the increase in structural relief of the Axial Zone by underthrusting. The magnetostratigraphic and thermochronological ages obtained permit the link between the sedimentation rates in the surrounding basins and the exhumation rates in the hinterland, and reveal that accommodation space exerted the main control on sedimentation rates within the piggy-back basins. Post-depositional annealing of the stratigraphically lowest samples suggests about 2 km of burial by the younger synorogenic materials during progressive burial of the South Pyrenean fold and thrust belt. Thermal models also suggest a rapid exhumation event during the Late Neogene, linked to re-excavation caused by the base level drop during the Ebro River capture to the Mediterranean Sea. Sedimentation of the studied synorogenic materials during Middle Eocene-Oligocene times occurred coeval to the development of thrust salients in the southern Pyrenees. The magnetotectonic study of 36 sites carried out in the Ainsa Oblique Zone reveal clockwise vertical-axis rotations varying from ~80° in the lower Lutetian materials of the Mediano anticline to ~20° in middle Ilerdian materials cropping out at the northern edge of the Añisclo anticline. Sites in the central part of the Montsec and Bóixols thrust sheets don’t record any significant rotation as neither do the syntectonic materials of La Pobla, Sis and Senterada. The age of the main rotation event within the Gavarnie thrust sheet is constrained to Lutetitan to Bartonian times, when all the structures of the Ainsa Oblique Zone were active. This vertical-axis rotation stage obeys to a difference of ~50 km in the amount of displacement on the Gavarnie thrust sheet controlled by the NE-SW pinch out of the Triassic salts at its basal detachment. A second rotation event of ~ 10° took place since Priabonian times, as a result of the differential displacement of about 22 km of the Serres Marginals thrust sheet, respect the Gavarnie one, on top of the upper Eocene-Oligocene evaporites. The synchronicity between thrusting and vertical-axis rotations suggests that the curved fold and thrust belt formed by progressive curvature with divergent thrust transport. The results exposed in this Thesis reveal a strong relationship between the stratigraphic record of the synorogenic materials, thrusting and exhumation in the Axial Zone and the structural evolution of the South Pyrenean thrust system. Tectonic forces controlled the observed patterns of exhumation, the evolution of the synorogenic topography of the piggy-back and foreland basins and the depositional features of the synorogenic sediments.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/49269
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Geodinàmica i Geofísica

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