Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/53205
Title: Synthesis and functionalization of nano- and micro-particles for sensing and therapy in living cells
Author: Penon Esteva, Oriol
Director: Pérez García, M. Lluïsa (Maria Lluïsa)
Keywords: Biofuncionalization
Biofuncionalització
Nanopartícules
Ultraestructura (Biologia)
Cèl·lules
Nanoparticles
Ultrastructure (Biology)
Cells
Issue Date: 29-Nov-2013
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] El diseño y la preparación, mediante la utilización de procesos de biofuncionalización de micro / nanosistemas que puedan tener aplicación en células vivas es un tema de actualidad en campos como la Nanobiotecnología y la Nanomedicina. De este modo, en la presente tesis se ha estudiado el proceso de biofuncionalización de micropartículas de polisilicio, para actuar como etiquetas celulares, debido al interés que genera la posibilidad de poder etiquetar células vivas y así conocer el comportamiento de las células de manera individual. Sucesivamente, también se ha estudiado la preparación de quimiosensores de dos parámetros intracelulares (pH y calcio) basados en compuestos con capacidad de variar la intensidad de su fluorescencia, según cambios del medio. Concretamente, se ha trabajado en la síntesis e inmovilización de derivados del aminoantraceno en micropartículas de silicio como posibles candidatos para obtener microherramientas capaces de detectar cambios en el pH o en la concentración de calcio intracelulares. Por otro lado, la tesis también describe la preparación de nanosistemas para su aplicación en terapia fotodinámica. La terapia fotodinámica (PDT) se basa en el uso de moléculas específicas (fotosensibilizadores), que en presencia de luz (generalmente un láser), activan el proceso de la muerte celular debido a la formación de radicales libres de oxígeno. La combinación de la utilización de nanopartículas modificadas con un fotosensibilizador resulta un reto interesante que podría mejorar la terapia antitumoral, disminuyendo sus efectos secundarios. Concretamente, en la tesis se describe la preparación de nuevos fotosensibilizadores derivados de porfirinas, con el fin ser incorporados a nanopartículas de óxido de hierro y de oro. También se detalla el estudio de la capacidad de los nuevos nanosistemas obtenidos de producir oxígeno singlete como elemento inductor de la apoptosis celular, y resultados preliminares in vivo indican su potencial aplicación en PDT. Estos estudios, demuestran la posibilidad de dichos nanosistemas para ser usados en terapia fotodinámica. Por último, también se han sintetizado derivados de metalo-porfirinas como componentes de rotores moleculares.
[eng] In the present thesis Supramolecular chemistry is exploited to approach applications in the area of Nanomedicine, and it is, focused on the design and preparation of different micro and nanotools for sensing and therapy, in living cells. Initially, the combination of silicon surface chemistry with the incorporation of bioactive molecules has been investigated in order to obtain a potentially microtool suitable for cell tagging. Furthermore, the design and synthesis of organic compounds as intracellular chemosensors was also explored. On the other hand, this report also includes the synthesis and characterization of dissymmetrical porphyrin derivatives and their subsequent incorporation to metal nanoparticles (gold and iron oxide) for their use in photodynamic therapy (PDT), due to their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species after irradiation, inducing the cell death. The preparation of novel metallo-porphyrins as components of molecular machines was also achieved. First, the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on polysilicon surfaces was investigated, using different silanes to obtain a functionalization protocol which can be easily repetitive and effective. Thus, three silanes with different functional groups, an aldehyde, an epoxide and an activated ester, have been tested to prepare a SAM and subsequently, prompting us to immobilize a bioactive molecule. Different parameters of the functionalization methodology have been examined, such as the silanization time, deposition method, the type of solvent and silane concentration. Once the SAM formation was optimized, the immobilization of the protein what germ agglutinin (WGA) was achieved, because its ability of cell membrane recognition. The WGA used, included a fluorescent dye (Texas red) to be able to characterize the immobilization of the protein on a silicon surface by fluorescence microscopy, and similar successful results were obtained in the three different silanes used. The same methodology (SAM formation and WGA immobilization) was subsequent applied in silicon encoded microparticles designed for tagging cells. Experiments using mouse embryos have been performed to determine the extracellular adhesion level of the encoded microparticles, resulting above 90 % in all cases. Proper immobilization of WGA protein was the key factor in cell labeling, because WGA recognizes specifically certain carbohydrates expressed in the external membrane (zona pellucida) of the embryo. Synthesis and immobilization of an aminoanthracene derivative as pH sensor was carried out, and its subsequent immobilization on silicon microparticles was achieved. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the aminoanthracene derivative immobilized on silicon microparticles could be a potential microtool for sense intracellular pH. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed an important increase at acid pH, whereas from pH 7 to pH 12 the fluorescence emission was very low. On the other hand, aminoanthracene incorporating an aza-crown ether was also prepared as a possible candidate for calcium sensing. Preliminary studies using fluorescence spectroscopy, demonstrated a good selectivity for calcium in comparison with other cations such as magnesium, sodium and potassium. Dissymmetrical porphyrin derivatives have been synthesized and then immobilized on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles, obtaining water soluble metallic nanoparticles incorporating the photosensitizer. The capacity to produce singlet oxygen to induce the cell death following irradiation was investigated, resulting porphyrin immobilized gold or iron oxide nanoparticles. Thus, the prepared porphyrin derivatives and their corresponding nanotools exhibited a high formation of singlet oxygen, resulting nanotools potentially suitable for PDT. Otherwise, anti-erbB2 antibody, a specific antibody for a membrane receptor overexpressed in breast cancer cells, was immobilized onto water soluble porphyrin-gold nanoparticles. Preliminary experiments in a breast cancer cell line, demonstrated the capacity of the porphyrin-antibody-gold nanoparticle to produce the cell death following irradiation. Finally a metallo-porphyrins derivative was synthesized and characterize as a promising component for molecular rotors.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/53205
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Farmacologia i Química Terapèutica

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