Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55525
Title: Working conditions and health: Evidence on inequalities in Spain
Author: Solé Juvés, Meritxell
Director: Rodríguez Martínez, Marisol, 1951-
Díaz Serrano, Lluís
Keywords: Condicions de treball
Incapacitat laboral
Discriminació en el treball
Economia del treball
Work environment
Work disability
Discrimination in employment
Labor economics
Issue Date: 12-May-2014
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] Esta tesis se ocupa de la relación entre incapacidad permanente y condiciones de trabajo. En los dos primeros capítulos se investiga cómo las condiciones de trabajo, junto con otras variables sociodemográficas, contribuyen a la discapacidad. Nos centramos en diferencias asociadas a la condición de inmigrante (primer capítulo) y por periodo o cohorte (segundo capítulo), mediante la comparación de sucesivas cohortes de jóvenes entre 25 y 34 años de edad. En el tercer capítulo tomamos la perspectiva opuesta y analizamos el efecto de la incapacidad permanente en la vida laboral del individuo. Los resultados del primer capítulo indican que la condición de migrante - con diferencias por región de origen - tiene efectos significativos en la discapacidad y la probabilidad de estar empleado en una ocupación de alto riesgo. A pesar de que las condiciones de trabajo de los inmigrantes son objetivamente peores, presentan menor probabilidad de quedar discapacitados que los nativos. Nuestros resultados también sugieren que no sólo los riesgos de accidente y enfermedad profesional, ampliamente reconocidos, se asocian con probabilidades elevadas de discapacidad. Los trabajos poco cualificados y la inestabilidad en el empleo también se asocian con un mayor riesgo de discapacidad. En el segundo capítulo se muestra que el impacto de la inestabilidad laboral es mayor entre las cohortes de jóvenes actuales, si se comparan con los jóvenes en los años 80. Por último, los resultados del tercer capítulo muestran que sólo cerca del 10 % de las personas con discapacidad siguen trabajando después de la aparición de ésta. La brecha salarial entre trabajadores con y sin discapacidad es importante y significativa, y cerca del 30% de esta diferencia se atribuiría a discriminación de las personas con discapacidad. Nuestros resultados apuntan a que los efectos de esta discriminación en el empleo de las personas con discapacidad serían importantes, en particular para los hombres. Los conjuntos de datos utilizados en los tres capítulos se han elaborado a partir de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales (MCVL), un conjunto de datos administrativos que contiene las historias laborales de los trabajadores y pensionistas desde 2004 .
[eng] This thesis is concerned with the relationship between disability and working conditions. In the first two chapters we investigate how past and current working conditions, in conjunction with other socio-demographic variables, contribute to disability. We focus on differences by migrant status (first chapter) and by period or cohort (second chapter) specifically, by comparing successive cohorts of young people aged 25 to 34. In the third chapter we take up the opposite perspective and we analyse the effect of permanent disability on the working life of the individual. The main result of the first chapter is that migrant status – with differences among regions of origin – significantly affects both disability and the probability of being employed in a high-risk occupation. In spite of immigrants’ working conditions being objectively worse, they exhibit lower probability of becoming disabled than natives because the impact of such conditions on disability is much smaller in their case. Our results also suggest that not only the risks of illness and injury, widely recognized, involve higher rates of disability. Unskilled labour and employment instability are also associated with increased risks of disability and its impact is greatest among later-born cohorts, as the second chapter reveals. Attending to differences by cohort, job insecurity has a significant and huge impact on disability for all birth cohorts. By contrast, the effect of temporary employment “per se” is controversial without considering other factors, like the changes in Employment Protection Legislation motivated by the labour market reforms of the last two decades. Finally, the results of the third chapter show that only 10% of disabled people remain in the labour market after the occurrence of the disability. The potential disincentives to employment are controversial. While it is true that higher disability pensions are associated with lower probabilities of employment, it is also observed that, in general, wages and income decreases as a result of a disability, being the decision of remaining out of the labour market not entirely attributable to the worker and his pension level. Conversely, it is plausible that the alleged disincentives to employment come too, and largely, from the labour market. The wage gap between workers with and without IP are high and significant, and only in part can be explained by differences in productivity, so that the unexplained difference could be attributed to discrimination in the labour market against people with disability. The data sets employed in the three chapters have been elaborated from the Continuous Sample of Working Lives, known as the MCVL in Spanish (from "Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales"), a Spanish administrative data set containing work histories of workers and pensioners available since 2004.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55525
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Política Econòmica i Estructura Econòmica Mundial

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