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Title: 3D Interactive model of lumbar spinal structures of anaesthetic interest
Author: Prats Galino, Alberto
Reina, Miguel A,
Mavar Haramija, Marija
Puigdellívol Sánchez, Anna
Juanes Méndez, Juan Antonio
Andrés, José Antonio de
Keywords: Visualització tridimensional
Vèrtebres lumbars
Anatomia humana
Ressonància magnètica
Three-dimensional display systems
Lumbar vertebrae
Human anatomy
Magnetic resonance
Issue Date: 28-Oct-2014
Publisher: Wiley
Abstract: A 3D model of lumbar structures of anesthetic interest was reconstructed from human magnetic resonance (MR) images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The MR images were analyzed using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data. Models generated from manually delimited volumes of interest and selected MR images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language format and were presented in a PDF document containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D file and the corresponding instructions and license files can be downloaded freely at The 3D PDF interactive file includes reconstructions of the L3-L5 vertebrae, intervertebral disks, ligaments, epidural and foraminal fat, dural sac and nerve root cuffs, sensory and motor nerve roots of the cauda equina, and anesthetic approaches (epidural medial, spinal paramedial, and selective nerve root paths); it also includes a predefined sequential educational presentation. Zoom, 360 rotation, selective visualization, and transparency graduation of each structure and clipping functions are available. Familiarization requires no specialized informatics knowledge. The ease with which the document can be used could make it valuable for anatomical and anesthetic teaching and demonstration of patient information.
Note: Versió postprint del document publicat a:
It is part of: Clinical Anatomy, 2015, vol. 28, núm. 2, p. 205-212
Related resource:
ISSN: 0897-3806
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Fonaments Clínics)

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