Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/66128
Title: Conducting polymers for micro and nano electrodes. Application to biomolecule sensing and release
Author: Galán Cascales, Teresa
Director: Samitier i Martí, Josep
Keywords: Polímers conductors
Electrònica
Nanoestructures
Ciències de la salut
Conducting polymers
Electronics
Nanostructures
Medical sciences
Issue Date: 14-May-2015
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [spa] Aunque los polímeros conductores se presentan como una alternativa viable a los materiales convencionalmente usados en aplicaciones biomédicas, las técnicas de fabricación adaptadas a ellos y el aprovechamiento de sus propiedades están lejos de ser completos. Existen importantes limitaciones en la fabricación de micro y nano estructuras basadas en polímeros conductores. Debido a la agresividad de las técnicas tradicionalmente usadas en microelectrónica, se hace necesaria la búsqueda de nuevas estrategias de fabricación adaptadas a polímeros conductores, así como de nuevos procesos que puedan mejorar el rendimiento de los dispositivos diseñados. En esta tesis titulada “Conducting polymers micro and nano electrodes. Application to biomolecule sensing and release”, se han investigado nuevas técnicas de fabricación y de funcionalización de polímeros conductores, poniendo un especial interés en su aplicación biomédica. Una nueva técnica de fabricación de microestructuras de polipirrol por método biocatalítico sobre superficies aislantes ha sido desarrollada con resoluciones comparables a las de la litografía óptica. Dicha técnica es compatible con la incorporación de biomoléculas durante el proceso de síntesis, lo que garantiza su utilización en entornos biológicos. Esto fue demostrado mediante la incorporación de biotina durante el proceso de polimerización y su posterior liberación, mediante estimulo eléctrico. También se ha desarrollado un nuevo sensor de ADN sin marcaje basado en electrodos de azida-PEDOT, para la detección de secuencias basadas en la “Hepatitis C”. Estos electrodos, permiten la directa y covalente funcionalización con secuencias de ADN, modificadas con grupos acetileno, por medio de la química “Click”. La hibridación fue detectada mediante la evaluación de la electroactividad del polímero tras el suceso de reconocimiento. Esta novedosa modalidad de sensores demostró ser selectiva y sensible, siendo capaz de detectar secuencias complementarias en el rango nM, sin necesidad de marcajes, ni complejas técnicas de microfabricación. Finalmente, se estudiaron dos técnicas de fabricación de nanohilos de polímero conductor: nanolitografía de dip-pen y electropolimerización sobre superficies con plantillas. Estos estudios proveen al incompleto campo de la fabricación de nanoestructuras de polímeros conductores de resultados adicionales, que amplían el campo de aplicación de dichos materiales.
[eng] This thesis aims at providing a better understanding of the micro- and nanofabrication of conducting polymers for biomedical devices and presents novel processes that widen the application range of conducting polymers in this field. The thesis is divided in four chapters, namely “Materials and Methods”, “Biocatalytically-produced polypyrrole thin films and microelectrodes on insulating surfaces”, “Azide-PEDOT electrodes. Application to DNA sensors” and “Fabrication of polypyrrole single nanowire devices”. Chapter 1, entitled “Materials and Methods”, describes the materials used in this work and the fabrication and characterization methods required for the development of the thesis. Here, theoretical and experimental details about the techniques employed, are provided. Chapter 2, entitled “Biocatalytically-produced polypyrrole thin films and microelectrodes on insulating surfaces”, presents a new on-surface biocatalytical procedure for the fabrication of polypyrrole microelectrodes on insulating surfaces, with resolutions comparable to the ones of conventional photolitography. This is an environmentally respectful microfabrication method that allows the entrapment of biomolecules during the polymer synthesis in a single step. As a proof of concept, biotin was trapped in the polypyrrole matrix and then released in a controlled way through electrical stimulation. It was proven that the polymer keeps its electroactivity after the fabrication and functionalization processes. This biocatalytical-based technique represents a straightforward method for the microfabrication of biological-active conducting polymers, which could be implemented in implantable devices for remotely controlled tissue interactions. Chapter 3, entitled “Azide-PEDOT electrodes. Application to DNA sensors”, describes the fabrication and testing of an electrochemical label-free DNA hybridization sensor, based on novel azidomethyl-modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) electrodes (azide-PEDOT electrodes). These azide-PEDOT electrodes were used as platforms for the immobilization of acetylene-DNA probes, complementary to the “Hepatitis C” virus. The acetylene-DNA probes were covalently grafted to the polymer backbone via the robust “Click” reaction, which a part from being a very selective functionalization method, preserves DNA from denaturation during the synthesis of the polymer. DNA hybridization was detected by Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV), where the electrochemical change of the polymer behaviour, produced by the recognition event, was directly evaluated. This fabrication procedure is a powerful tool for the preparation of label-free DNA sensors able to selectively recognize a specific DNA sequence, down to the nanomolar range. Finally, Chapter 4, entitled “Fabrication of polypyrrole single nanowire devices”, discusses the fabrication of polypyrrole at the nanoscale. Two fabrication techniques were investigated here, namely dip pen nanolithography and electrochemical polymerization on template-assisted surfaces. On one hand, the dip pen nanolithography proved to be a simple deposition technique with good control over size and location of the polypyrrole nanowires. On the other hand, the electrochemical polymerization on template-assisted surfaces provided as well nanoscaled polypyrrole, but added the possibility to chemically manipulate the polymer. This chemical manipulation was translated into polymer devices with different electrical properties. By the use of these techniques, the capability of fabricating single nanowire devices (ready to use in different applications) and arrays of ordered nanowires based on conducting polymers is demonstrated. Additionally, two appendixes can be found at the end of the thesis: Appendix A: “Fabrication of azide-PEDOT microwire-based devices” and Appendix B: “Fabrication of nanopatterns by electron-sensitive silanes”. They provide short experimental results obtained during the course of this work, which are first steps for future investigations. A general conclusions section can be found at the end of the thesis, where a summary of the main achievements and contributions of this thesis are listed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/66128
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Electrònica

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