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Title: Non-thermal emission from high-energy binaries through interferometric radio observations
Author: Marcote Martin, Benito
Director: Ribó Gomis, Marc
Paredes i Poy, Josep Maria
Manrique Oliva, Alberto
Keywords: Estels binaris de raigs X
X-ray binaries
Radio astronomy
Issue Date: 27-Oct-2015
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] High-mass binary systems involve extreme environments that produce non-thermal emission from radio to gamma rays. Only three types of these systems are known to emit persistent gamma-ray emission: colliding-wind binaries, high-mass X-ray binaries and gamma-ray binaries. This thesis is focused on the radio emission of high-mass binary systems through interferometric observations, and we have explored several of these sources with low- and high-frequency radio observations, and very high-resolution VLBI ones. We have studied the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 at low and high frequencies, and we have determined its spectra and light-curves in the frequency range of 0.15—15 GHz by analyzing radio observations from the VLA, GMRT and WSRT. We have observed that its spectrum is persistent along the time on day, month and year timescales, exhibiting a turnover at 0.5 GHz. The obtained quasi-simultaneous spectra reveal subtle differences between them. Synchrotron self-absorption can explain the observed spectra, but the Razin effect is necessary at some epochs. This is the first time that this effect is reported in a gamma-ray binary. With all these data and a simple model, we have estimated the physical properties of the radio emitting region, providing an estimation of its size, the magnetic field, the electron density, and the mass-loss rate of the companion star. We have also explored the low-frequency emission of the gamma-ray binary LS I +61 303 through GMRT and LOFAR observations. We have detected for the first time a gamma-ray binary at a frequency as low as 150 MHz. We have also determined the light-curves of the source at 150, 235 and 610 MHz. These light-curves are modulated with the orbital and superorbital period, with a quasi-sinusoidal modulation along the orbital phase. The shifts observed between the orbital phases at which the maximum emission takes place at different frequencies have been modeled with a simple model, suggesting an expanding emitting region, with an expansion velocity close to the stellar wind one. The gamma-ray binary HESS J0632+057 has been explored with a very high-resolution EVN observation to unveil the evolution of its radio emission along the orbit. However, the source was not detected, setting an upper-limit which is one order of magnitude below the radio emission detected in previous observations. We have discovered a new colliding wind binary (HD 93129A) through a multiwavelength campaign with optical and LBA radio data. We have resolved the radio emission from the wind collision region, observing the expected bow-shaped structure. This source is one of the earliest, hottest, and most massive binary systems discovered up to now. We provide a rough estimation of the wind momentum rates ratio based on the observed structure. We have also observed an increase of the radio emission during the last years, as the system approaches to the periastron passage, which is estimated to take place in ~2024. Finally, we performed radio observations on two new sources that were hypothesized to be gamma-ray binaries. On one hand, the star TYC 4051-1277-1 was initially proposed to be associated with a non-thermal radio source, but he have concluded that the radio emission is originated by a quasar. On the other hand, MWC 656 has been discovered to be the first Be/BH binary system. However, its radio emission remains undetected. Based on these results, we have improved the knowledge of several high-energy binary systems through their radio emission, conducting for the first time detailed low-frequency estudies on these types of sources.
[spa] Las binarias de alta energía son sistemas que producen emisión de rayos X y/o rayos gamma, debido a la presencia de un entorno suficientemente energético como para acelerar partículas hasta velocidades relativistas. Sólo tres tipos de binarias han sido detectadas en rayos gamma de forma persistente: binarias con colisión de vientos, binarias de rayos X de alta masa o binarias de rayos gamma. Todas ellas involucran una estrella masiva (con una masa superior a 8 veces la masa solar) y a otra estrella masiva o a un objeto compacto. Esta tesis está centrada en el estudio de la emisión radio de estos sistemas a través de observaciones con radio interferómetros. Se han estudiado dos binarias de rayos gamma a bajas frecuencias (LS 5039 y LS I +61 303), obteniendo sus curvas de luz y espectros. Éstos nos han permitido determinar propiedades físicas de la región emisora, como el campo magnético, la tasa de pérdida de masa, o la velocidad de expansión de dicha región. También hemos revelado la presencia del efecto Razin en la parte absorbida del espectro de LS 5039, siendo la primera vez que se detecta en una binaria de rayo gamma. Además, se ha detectado por primera vez una binaria de rayos gamma, LS I +61 303, a una frecuencia tan baja como 150 MHz. También se ha estudiado la binaria de rayos gamma HESS J0632+057 con observaciones radio de muy alta resolución, aunque la misma no ha sido detectada. Se ha descubierto una nueva binaria con colisión de vientos, HD 93129A, a través de observaciones radio de muy alta resolución y observaciones ópticas. Por último, se han llevado a cabo observaciones radio de dos fuentes que eran candidatas a ser binarias de rayos gamma.
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Astronomia i Meteorologia

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