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Title: Cryptococcal Antigenemia in Immunocompromised Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Rural Tanzania: A Preventable Cause of Early Mortality
Author: Letang, Emilio
Muller, Matthias C.
Ntamatungiro, Alex J.
Kimera, Namvua
Faini, Diana
Furrer, Hansjakob
Battegay, Manuel
Tanner, Marcel
Hatz, Christoph
Boulware, David R.
Glass, Tracy R.
Keywords: Comorbiditat
Infeccions per VIH
Micologia mèdica
HIV infections
Medical mycology
Issue Date: 2-Apr-2015
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract: Background. Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of death in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The World Health Organizations recommends pre-antiretroviral treatment (ART) cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening in persons with CD4 below 100 cells/microL. We assessed the prevalence and outcome of cryptococcal antigenemia in rural southern Tanzania. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study including all ART-naive adults with CD4 <150 cells/microL prospectively enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort between 2008 and 2012. Cryptococcal antigen was assessed in cryopreserved pre-ART plasma. Cox regression estimated the composite outcome of death or loss to follow-up (LFU) by CRAG status and fluconazole use. Results. Of 750 ART-naive adults, 28 (3.7%) were CRAG-positive, corresponding to a prevalence of 4.4% (23 of 520) in CD4 <100 and 2.2% (5 of 230) in CD4 100-150 cells/microL. Within 1 year, 75% (21 of 28) of CRAG-positive and 42% (302 of 722) of CRAG-negative patients were dead or LFU (P<.001), with no differences across CD4 strata. Cryptococcal antigen positivity was an independent predictor of death or LFU after adjusting for relevant confounders (hazard ratio [HR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-4.83; P = .006). Cryptococcal meningitis occurred in 39% (11 of 28) of CRAG-positive patients, with similar retention-in-care regardless of meningitis diagnosis (P = .8). Cryptococcal antigen titer >1:160 was associated with meningitis development (odds ratio, 4.83; 95% CI, 1.24-8.41; P = .008). Fluconazole receipt decreased death or LFU in CRAG-positive patients (HR, 0.18; 95% CI, .04-.78; P = .022). Conclusions. Cryptococcal antigenemia predicted mortality or LFU among ART-naive HIV-infected persons with CD4 <150 cells/microL, and fluconazole increased survival or retention-in-care, suggesting that targeted pre-ART CRAG screening may decrease early mortality or LFU. A CRAG screening threshold of CD4 <100 cells/microL missed 18% of CRAG-positive patients, suggesting guidelines should consider a higher threshold.
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It is part of: Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 2015, vol. 2, num. 2, p. 1-8
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ISSN: 2328-8957
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (ISGlobal)

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