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Title: Esterification of levulinic acid with butanol over ion exchange resins
Author: Tejero Iborra, M. Àngels
Ramírez Rangel, Eliana
Fité Piquer, Carles
Tejero Salvador, Xavier
Cunill García, Fidel
Keywords: Catàlisi
Resines de bescanvi iònic
Ion exchange resins
Issue Date: 4-Mar-2016
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Abstract: Alkyl levulinates are biobased chemicals with a great number of applications and great biofuel potential for blending to conventional diesel or gasoline. The present work focuses on the liquid-phase synthesis of butyl levulinate (BL) by esterification of levulinic acid (LA) with 1-butanol (BuOH) using a set of acidic ion-exchange resins. Experiments were performed at 80 °C and 2.5 MPa in a batch reactor by using an initial molar ratio AL/BuOH of 1/3 and a catalyst loading of 0.8%. It has been found that BL could be successfully obtained over ion-exchange resins with a selectivity higher than 99.5%. LA conversions ranged from 64% (Amberlyst 46, macroreticular, surface sulfonated) to 94% (Dowex 50Wx2, gel-type resin, conventionally sulfonated) at 8 h reaction time. By comparing their catalytic behavior, it was seen that resins morphology plays a very important role in the synthesis of BL making easier the access of reactants to acid sites. Accessibility of LA and BuOH to acid centers was high over highly swollen and low polymer density resins. Thus, gel-type resins with low divinylbenzene (DVB) content have been found as the most suitable to produce BL, e.g. Dowex 50Wx2, Dowex 50Wx4 and Purolite® CT224. Among them, Dowex 50Wx2 (2% DVB) is the most efficient catalyst tested.
Note: Versió postprint del document publicat a:
It is part of: Applied Catalysis A-General, 2016, vol. 517, p. 56-66
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ISSN: 0926-860X
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Enginyeria Química i Química Analítica)

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