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Title: Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface
Author: Tamburini, Christian
Canals Artigas, Miquel
Durrieu de Madron, Xavier
Houpert, Loic
Lefèvre, Dominique
Martini, Séverine
D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio
Robert, Anne
Testor, Pierre
Aguilar, Juan Antonio
Al Samarai, Imen
Arnaud, Albert
André, Michel
Anghinolfi, Marco
Anton, Gisela
Anvar, Shebli
Ardid, Miguel
Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina
Astraadmaja, L.Tri
Aubert, Jean-Jacques
Baret, Bruny
Basa, Stéphane
Bertin, Vincent
Biagi, Simone
Bigi, Armando
Bigongiari, Ciro
Bogazzi, Claudio
Bou-Cabo, Manuel
Bouhou, Boutayeb
Bouwhuis, Mieke C.
Brunner, Jurgen
Busto, José
Camarena, Francisco
Capone, Antonio
Carloganu, Christina
Carminati, Giada
Carr, John
Ceccini, Stefano
Charif, Ziad
Keywords: Salinitat
Aigua de mar
Mediterrània (Mar)
Mediterranean Sea
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Abstract: The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.
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It is part of: PLoS One, 2013, vol. 8, num. 7, p. e67523
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ISSN: 1932-6203
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Dinàmica de la Terra i l'Oceà)

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