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Title: Key Points for the Amyloid Infectivity and Prion Neuronal Invasion
Author: Espargaró Colomé, Alba
Busquets i Viñas, Ma. Antonia
Estelrich i Latràs, Joan
Sabaté Lagunas, Raimon
Keywords: Malaltia d'Alzheimer
Malaltia de Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Alzheimer's disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Issue Date: 22-Apr-2016
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Abstract: Amyloid aggregation has been related to an increasing number of human illnesses, from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD/PD) to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Commonly, only prions have been considered as infectious agents with a high capacity of propagation. However, recent publications have shown that many amyloid proteins, including amyloid β-peptide, α-synuclein (α-syn) and tau protein, also propagate in a 'prion-like' manner. Meanwhile, no link between propagation of pathological proteins and neurotoxicity has been demonstrated. The extremely low infectivity under natural conditions of most non-prion amyloids is far below the capacity to spread exhibited by prions. Nonetheless, it is important to elucidate the key factors that cause non- prion amyloids to become infectious agents. In recent years, important advances in our understanding of the amyloid processes of amyloid-like proteins and unrelated prions (i.e., yeast and fungal prions) have yielded essential information that can shed light on the prion phenomenon in mammals and humans. As shown in this review, recent evidence suggests that there are key factors that could dramatically modulate the prion capacity of proteins in the amyloid conformation. The concentration of nuclei, the presence of oligomers, and the toxicity, resistance and localization of these aggregates could all be key factors affecting their spread. In short, those factors that favor the high concentration of extracellular nuclei or oligomers, characterized by small size, with a low toxicity could dramatically increase prion propensity; whereas low concentrations of highly toxic intracellular amyloids, with a large size, would effectively prevent infectivity.
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It is part of: Frontiers In Molecular Neuroscience, 2016, vol. 9, num. 29, p. 1-7
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ISSN: 1662-5099
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Farmàcia, Tecnologia Farmacèutica i Fisicoquímica)

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