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|Pneumocystis pneumonia in the twenty-first century: HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected patients
Álvarez Martínez, Míriam
Moreno Camacho, Ma. Asunción
Torres Martí, Antoni
Miró Meda, José M.
|Taylor & Francis
|Introduction: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) has classically been described as a serious complication in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the emerging number of conditions associated with immunosuppression has led to its appearance in other patient populations, such as those receiving chronic corticosteroid therapy, those with hematological or solid malignancies, transplant recipients and those who receive immunomodulatory or biological therapy. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications on PcP in the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected population, focusing on epidemiology, diagnostic, therapy and prevention. The data discussed here were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline and references from relevant articles including randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, observational studies and clinical reviews. Eligible studies were selected in two stages: sequential examination of title and abstract, followed by full text. Expert opinion: Widespread use of antiretroviral and prophylactic therapy in HIV-infected patients has decreased the incidence of PcP in this population. However, the growing incidence of Pneumocystis infection in the HIV-uninfected population suggests the need for new global epidemiological studies in order to identify the true scale of the disease in this population. These data would allow us to improve diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and clinical management. It is very important that both patients and physicians realize that HIV-uninfected patients are at risk of PcP and that rapid diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are associated with better prognosis. Currently, in-hospital mortality rates are very high: 15% for HIV-infected patients and 50% in some HIV-uninfected patients. Therefore, adequate preventive measures should be implemented to avoid the high mortality rates seen in recent decades.
|Versió postprint del document publicat a: https://doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2019.1671823
|It is part of:
|Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, 2019, vol. 17, num. 10, p. 787-801
|Appears in Collections:
|Articles publicats en revistes (IDIBAPS: Institut d'investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer)
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