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Title: A revised definition for copal and its significance for palaeontological and Anthropocene biodiversity‑loss studies
Author: Solórzano-Kraemer, Mónica M.
Delclòs Martínez, Xavier
Engel, Michael S.
Penalver, Enrique
Keywords: Paleontologia
Issue Date: 16-Oct-2020
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Abstract: The early fossilization steps of natural resins and associated terminology are a subject of constant debate. Copal and resin are archives of palaeontological and historical information, and their study is critical to the discovery of new and/or recently extinct species and to trace changes in forests during the Holocene. For such studies, a clear, suitable definition for copal is vital and is herein established. We propose an age range for copal (2.58 Ma¿1760 AD), including Pleistocene and Holocene copals, and the novel term 'Defaunation resin', defined as resin produced after the commencement of the Industrial Revolution. Defaunation resin is differentiated from Holocene copal as it was produced during a period of intense human transformative activities. Additionally, the 'Latest Amber Bioinclusions Gap' (LABG) since the late Miocene to the end of the Pleistocene is hereby newly defined, and is characterized by its virtual absence of bioinclusions and the consequent lack of palaeontological information, which in part explains the historical differentiation between amber and copal. Crucial time intervals in the study of resin production, and of the biodiversity that could be contained, are now clarified, providing a framework for and focusing future research on bioinclusions preserved in copal and resin.
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It is part of: Scientific Reports, 2020, vol. 10, num. 19904, p. 1-12
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ISSN: 2045-2322
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Dinàmica de la Terra i l'Oceà)

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