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Title: Impacts of Use and Abuse of Nature in Catalonia with Proposals for Sustainable Management
Author: Peñuelas, Josep
Germain, Josep
Álvarez, Enrique
Aparicio, Enric
Arús, Pere
Basnou, Corina
Blanché i Vergés, Cèsar
Bonada i Caparrós, Núria
Canals, Puri
Capodiferro, Marco
Carceller, Xavier
Casademunt, Alexandre
Casals, Joan
Casals, Pere
Casañas, Francesc
Catalán, Jordi
Checa, Joan
Cordero, Pedro J.
Corominas, Joaquim
Sostoa, Adolf de
Espelta Morral, Josep Maria
Estrada, Marta
Folch, Ramon
Franquesa, Teresa
Garcia-Lozano, Carla
Garí, Mercè
Geli, Anna Maria
González-Guerrero, Óscar
Gordillo, Javier
Gosálbez, Joaquim
Grimalt, Joan O.
Guàrdia, Anna
Isern, Rosó
Jordana, Jordi
Junqué, Eva
Lascurain, Josep
Lleonart, Jordi
Llorente, Gustavo A.
Lloret, Francisco
Vilaplana, Joan Manuel
Keywords: Recursos naturals
Petjada ecològica
Educació ambiental
Política ambiental
Protecció ambiental
Natural resources
Ecological footprint
Environmental education
Environmental policy
Environmental protection
Issue Date: 2-Feb-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the last 40 years of use, and in many cases abuse, of the natural resources in Catalonia, a country that is representative of European countries in general, and especially those in the Mediterranean region. It analyses the use of natural resources made by mining, agriculture, livestock, logging, fishing, nature tourism, and energy production and consumption. This use results in an ecological footprint, i.e., the productive land and sea surface required to generate the consumed resources and absorb the resulting waste, which is about seven times the amount available, a very high number but very similar to other European countries. This overexploitation of natural resources has a huge impact on land and its different forms of cover, air, and water. For the last 25 years, forests and urban areas have each gained almost 3% more of the territory at the expense of agricultural land; those municipalities bordering the sea have increased their number of inhabitants and activity, and although they only occupy 6.7% of the total surface area, they account for 43.3% of the population; air quality has stabilized since the turn of the century, and there has been some improvement in the state of aquatic ecosystems, but still only 36% are in good condition, while the remainder have suffered morphological changes and different forms of nonpoint source pollution; meanwhile the biodiversity of flora and fauna remains still under threat. Environmental policies do not go far enough so there is a need for revision of the legislation related to environmental impact and the protection of natural areas, flora, and fauna. The promotion of environmental research must be accompanied by environmental education to foster a society which is more knowledgeable, has more control and influence over the decisions that deeply affect it. Indeed, nature conservation goes hand in hand with other social and economic challenges that require a more sustainable vision. Today's problems with nature derive from the current economic model, which is environmentally unsustainable in that it does not take into account environmental impacts. Lastly, we propose a series of reasonable and feasible priority measures and actions related to each use made of the country's natural resources, to the impacts they have had, and to their management, in the hope that these can contribute to improving the conservation and management of the environment and biodiversity and move towards sustainability.
Note: Reproducció del document publicat a:
It is part of: Land, 2021, vol. 10(2), num. 144, p. 1-53
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ISSN: 2073-445X
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Dinàmica de la Terra i l'Oceà)

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