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Title: Modulation of Signal Transduction Pathways in Senescence-Accelerated Mice P8 Strain: A Useful Tool for Alzheimer’s Disease Research
Author: Albasanz, José Luis
Castillo, Carlos Alberto
Barrachina Castillo, Marta
Ferrer, Isidro (Ferrer Abizanda)
Martín, Mairena
Keywords: Malaltia d'Alzheimer
Envelliment cerebral
Alzheimer's disease
Aging brain
Issue Date: 6-Sep-2011
Publisher: IntechOpen
Abstract: Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) lines serve as models of aging and age-associated diseases. The SAMP8 strain has a shortened life span and early-onset manifestations of senescence with characteristic pathological features observed in elderly humans, including deficits in learning and memory. In brains of SAMP8 mice, the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is altered, resulting in excess production and accumulation of amyloid-􀇃 peptide (A􀇃), tau is hyper-phosphorylated, and oxidative stress is increased. These phenotypic abnormalities are quite reminiscent of the findings in human brains with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mechanistically, metabolic pathways that are responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased, while antioxidant systems are reduced in activity in the cerebral cortex of aged SAMP8 mice. Besides these structural and metabolic alterations, brains of aged SAMP8 mice exhibit neurochemical abnormalities such as altered signaling through G protein-coupled receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine, acetylcholine, adenosine, dopamine, melatonin, glutamate and GABA, ion channel receptors, and nuclear hormone receptors (e.g. for all-trans-retinoic acid, cortisol or estradiol). Consequences include alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters, receptor numbers, receptor binding affinity, and second messengers. Of note is that in AD, G proteincoupled receptors and/or their corresponding signaling pathways are often impaired. Together, the observations in aged SAMP8 mouse brains provide convincing evidence that this model serves as an excellent research tool for studying AD pathogenesis and strategies for treatment. Additionally, many of the pathological and neurochemical abnormalities in SAMP8 mice are linked to altered expression of genes that are integrally related to processes such as neuroprotection, signal transduction, protein folding/degradation, intracellular transport and immune response. Several studies have already utilized pharmacological or dietary measures to restore cognitive function and enhance neuroprotection in aged SAMP8 mice, suggesting that these approaches may have applications in the treatment of AD. This review compiles available data concerning the signaling pathways that are altered in SAMP8 mice, and compares the effects to known abnormalities in AD brains.
Note: Reprodució del document publicat a:
It is part of: Chapter 15 in: De La Monte, Suzanne. 2011. The Clinical Spectrum of Alzheimer's Disease: The Charge Toward Comprehensive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies. IntechOpen. ISBN: 978-953-51-6785-3. DOI: 10.5772/722. pp: 297-330.
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Appears in Collections:Llibres / Capítols de llibre (Patologia i Terapèutica Experimental)
Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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