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Title: GDF15 mediates the metabolic effects of PPARβ/δ by activating AMPK
Author: Aguilar-Recarte, David
Barroso Fernández, Emma
Gumà i Garcia, Anna Maria
Pizarro Delgado, Javier
Peña, Lucía
Ruart, Maria
Palomer Tarridas, Francesc Xavier
Wahli, Walter
Vázquez Carrera, Manuel
Keywords: Trastorns del metabolisme dels lípids
Àcids grassos
Receptors nuclears (Bioquímica)
Lipid metabolism disorders
Fatty acids
Nuclear receptors (Biochemistry)
Issue Date: 16-Jul-2021
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/ (PPARβ/) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and plays a crucial role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of PPARβ/δ activation depended on growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), a stress response cytokine that regulates energy metabolism. Pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation increased GDF15 levels and ameliorated glucose intolerance, fatty acid oxidation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and activated AMPK in HFD-fed mice, whereas these effects were abrogated by the injection of a GDF15 neutralizing antibody and in Gdf15-/- mice. The AMPK-p53 pathway was involved in the PPARβ/δ-mediated increase in GDF15, which in turn activated again AMPK. Finally, Gdf15-/- mice showed reduced AMPK activation in skeletal muscle, whereas GDF15 administration resulted in AMPK activation in this organ. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism by which PPARβ/δ activation increases the levels of GDF15 via AMPK and p53, which in turn mediates the metabolic effects of PPARβ/δ by sustaining AMPK activation. Abbreviations: Acadm, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase medium chain; Acox, acyl-CoA oxidase; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; ATF4, activating transcription factor 4; BiP/GRP78, Binding immunoglobulin protein/78-kDa glucose-regulated protein; CC, compound C; Chop, C/EBP homologous protein; Cpt-1, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1; eIF2eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 ER, endoplasmic reticulum; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; FGF21, fibroblast growth factor 21; GDF15, growth differentiation factor 15; GFRAL, glial-derived neurotrophic factor receptor α-like; HFD, high-fat diet; Pdk4, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; PGC-1PPAR co-activator 1 PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; SOCS3, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3; STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; Vldlr, very-low density lipoprotein receptor.
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It is part of: Cell Reports, 2021, vol. 36, num. 6, p. 109501
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ISSN: 2211-1247
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular)
Articles publicats en revistes (Farmacologia, Toxicologia i Química Terapèutica)

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