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Title: Loxl3 Promotes Melanoma Progression and Dissemination Influencing Cell Plasticity and Survival
Author: Vázquez Naharro, Alberto
Bustos Tauler, José
Floristán, Alfredo
Yuste, Lourdes
Oltra, Sara S.
Vinyals, Antònia
Moreno Bueno, Gema
Fabra Fres, Àngels
Portillo, Francisco
Cano, Amparo
Santamaría, Patricia G.
Keywords: Melanoma
Issue Date: 25-Feb-2022
Publisher: MDPI AG
Abstract: Malignant melanoma is the most lethal skin cancer due to its aggressive clinical behavior and therapeutic resistance. A comprehensive knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma progression is urgently needed to improve the survival of melanoma patients. Phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells has emerged as a key process in melanomagenesis and therapy resistance. This phenotypic plasticity is sustained by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT)-like program that favors multiple intermediate states and allows adaptation to changing microenvironments along melanoma progression. Given the essential role of lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3) in human melanoma cell survival and its contribution to EMT, we generated mice with conditional melanocyte-specific targeting of Loxl3, concomitant to Braf activation and Pten deletion. Our results supported a key role of Loxl3 for melanoma progression, metastatic dissemination, and genomic stability, and supported its contribution to melanoma phenotypic plasticity by modulating the expression of several EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs). Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor causing most skin cancer-related deaths. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms responsible for melanoma progression and therapeutic evasion is still an unmet need for melanoma patients. Progression of skin melanoma and its dissemination to local or distant organs relies on phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells, orchestrated by EMT-TFs and microphthalmia-associated TF (MITF). Recently, melanoma phenotypic switching has been proposed to uphold context-dependent intermediate cell states benefitting malignancy. LOXL3 (lysyl oxidase-like 3) promotes EMT and has a key role in human melanoma cell survival and maintenance of genomic integrity. To further understand the role of Loxl3 in melanoma, we generated a conditional Loxl3-knockout (KO) melanoma mouse model in the context of BrafV600E-activating mutation and Pten loss. Melanocyte-Loxl3 deletion increased melanoma latency, decreased tumor growth, and reduced lymph node metastatic dissemination. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies in mouse melanoma cells confirmed Loxl3's contribution to melanoma progression and metastasis, in part by modulating phenotypic switching through Snail1 and Prrx1 EMT-TFs. Importantly, a novel LOXL3-SNAIL1-PRRX1 axis was identified in human melanoma, plausibly relevant to melanoma cellular plasticity. These data reinforced the value of LOXL3 as a therapeutic target in melanoma.
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It is part of: Cancers, 2022, vol. 14, num. 5
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ISSN: 2072-6694
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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