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Title: Evaluation of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency Phenotype and Patient Receiving B-Cell Depletion Therapy
Author: Antolí, Arnau
Rocamora Blanch, Gemma
Framil, Mario
Mas Bosch, Virgínia
Navarro, Sergio
Bermudez, Carla
Martinez Yelamos, Sergio
Dopico, Eva
Calatayud, Laura
Garcia Muñoz, Nadia
Hernández Benítez, Luis Humberto
Riera Mestre, Antoni
Bas, Jordi
Masuet Aumatell, Cristina
Rigo Bonnin, Raúl
Morandeira, Francisco
Solanich, Xavier
Keywords: COVID-19
Malalties immunitàries
Immunologic diseases
Issue Date: 29-Apr-2022
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Abstract: IntroductionSARS-CoV-2 vaccines' effectiveness is not yet clearly known in immunocompromised patients. This study aims to assess the humoral and cellular specific immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the predictors of poor response in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) phenotype and in patients treated with B-cell depletion therapies (BCDT), as well as the safety of these vaccines. MethodsFrom March to September 2021, we performed a prospective study of all adult patients who would receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and were previously diagnosed with (i) a CVID syndrome (CVID phenotype group; n=28) or (ii) multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with B-cell depleting therapies three to six months before vaccination (BCD group; n=24). Participants with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection; or prior SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration; or use of any immunosuppressant (except BCDT in MS group) were excluded. A group of subjects without any medical condition that confers immunosuppression and who met all study criteria was also assessed (control group; n=14). A chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to determine pre- and post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anti-S IgG antibodies. T-cell specific response was assessed by analysis of pre- and post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination blood samples with an interferon-gamma release assay. The baseline blood sample also included several biochemical, haematological and immunological analyses. ResultsSARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe in immunocompromised patients, although their effectiveness was lower than in healthy individuals. CVID phenotype patients showed impaired humoral (29%) and cellular (29%) response, while BCD patients fundamentally presented humoral failure (54%). Low IgA values, low CD19+ peripheral B cells, low switched memory B cells, and a low CD4+/CD8+ ratio were predictors of inadequate specific antibody response in CVID phenotype patients. No factor was found to predict poor cellular response in CVID phenotype patients, nor a defective humoral or cellular response in BCD patients. ConclusionThe effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in CVID phenotype and BCD patients is lower than in healthy individuals. Knowledge of predictive factors of humoral and cellular response failure in immunocompromised patients could be very useful in clinical practice, and thus, studies in this regard are clearly needed.
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It is part of: Frontiers in Immunology, 2022, vol. 13
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ISSN: 1664-3224
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Ciències Clíniques)
Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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