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Title: The impacts of agricultural and urban land-use changes on plant and bird biodiversity in Costa Rica (1986-2014)
Author: Montero Mora, Andrea
Marull, Joan
Tello, Enric
Cattaneo, Claudio
Coll, Francesc
Pons Sanvidal, Manel
Infante Amate, Juan
Urrego Mesa, John Alexander
Fernández-Landa, Alfredo
Vargas, Manuel
Keywords: Biodiversitat
Distribució de terres
Gestió forestal
Costa Rica
Allotment of land
Forest management
Costa Rica
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2021
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Abstract: Costa Rica is recognized worldwide for its nature conservation policy following the traditional land-sparing approach. However, concerns have been raised about the opposite trends of the agricultural land cover changes driven by the option to expand old and new export crops after the country's external debt crisis of the 1980s. We study what happened during the last 20 years by applying landscape ecology metrics to the REDD+ land cover maps of 1986, 2001, and 2014, and statistically testing these indicators with the locations of species richness of plants and birds recorded by INBio. Our results confirm that deforestation has been reversed and most of the biodiversity considered is housed in forestland, but also that the expansion of export monocultures and urban sprawl have fragmented and isolated these tropical forests. Ecological connectivity values decreased 13% across the territory, all crops are negatively correlated with bird and plant locations, and the metropolitan expansion caused a detrimental impact on coffee agroforestry. All these outcomes are consistent with the growing deficit of the Costa Rican physical trade balance due to a faster increase of tropical exports than the growing imports of staple food, with a loss of soil organic matter filled by high doses of agrochemicals imported. Overcoming these environmental problems require a new land-sharing approach to nature conservation aimed at improving ecological connectivity through an agroecology approach combined with land-use planning to preserve the remaining green belt of the shade coffee plantations as a buffer green infrastructure in the metropolitan area.
Note: Versió postprint del document publicat a:
It is part of: Regional Environmental Change, 2021, vol. 21, num. 2
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ISSN: 1436-3798
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Història Econòmica, Institucions, Política i Economia Mundial)

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