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Title: Dynamics and structural evolution of collapse calderas: A comparison between field evidence, analogue and mathematical models
Author: Geyer Traver, Adelina
Director/Tutor: Martí i Molist, Joan, 1957-
Keywords: Volcans
Dinàmica estructural
Models matemàtics
Structural dynamics
Mathematical models
Issue Date: 28-Mar-2007
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: Collapse calderas are defined as the volcanic depression that result from the disruption of the geometry of the magma chamber roof due to down faulting during the course of an eruption. These structures have received considerable attention due to their link to Earth's ore deposits and geothermal energy resources, but also because large pyroclastic eruptions and associated caldera collapse structures represent one of the most catastrophic geologic events that have occurred on the Earth's surface in the Phanerozoic time and in the historical time.<br/>After several pioneering works, collapse calderas have been the subject of studies of diverse disciplines. However, some important aspects on caldera dynamics and structure remain poorly understood yet. First, we have revised important works concerning field data about collapse calderas and summarized the most relevant aspects and results. We have created a database to record existing information about collapse calderas: Collapse Caldera DataBase (CCDB). After an exhaustive analysis of the included information we have observed two types of collapse caldera: type-A and type-B. Experiments on caldera collapse modelling allow a qualitative study of the structural evolution of a caldera collapse process and suggest which of factors play a more relevant role. Analogue models have verified that caldera collapse formation is influenced by multiple aspects (e.g. regional tectonics). We have performed three types of semi-quantitative analyses of particular interest for volcanic hazard: the measurement of the erupted magma chamber volume fraction required to achieve each step of the collapse process, the estimation of the subsidence pattern and the study of the influence of the roof aspect ratio in the dimensions of the collapse parts at surface. This work includes also a summary of the most important aspects concerning mathematical models of collapse calderas. In base of a mathematical analysis of the pressure evolution inside the chamber during volcanic cycles, we have defined two collapse caldera end-members: under- and overpressure calderas. We have (1) reproduced numerically some of the analogue experiments set out in this work; (2) studied the influence of the selected geometrical setting (e.g. axial symmetric or three-dimensional) in the obtained results and subsequent interpretations and (3) demonstrated that results obtained with mathematical models not strictly related to collapse caldera processes are also applicable to the study of collapse mechanisms and controlling factors. Finally, we compare the different results obtained by the three distinct disciplines, in order to propose a genetic classification for collapse calderas and to describe the dynamic and structural evolution of the defined end-members. We distinguish between "Cordilleran type" and "Composite volcano type" calderas. Calderas related to the first group correspond to commonly rhyolitic or dacitic, large plate/piston or trap-door calderas formed from a sill-like overpressurized magma chamber in the presence of a regional extensive stress field and a large scale doming or underplating. These calderas tend to occur in areas of thick or thin continental crust and in evolved transitional thick crust. They are associated with C-type subduction zones and areas of continental rifting. "Composite volcano type" calderas occur at the culmination of a long eruptive cycle in composite volcanoes. They take place at the summit of a long-lived volcanic edifice, which has undergone various periods of magma chamber inflation and deflation and different eruptions. The caldera-forming eruption begins with overpressure inside the chamber that triggers, once overcome the tensile strength of the host rock, magma injection into the host rock and finally, an eruption. Calderas included in this group tend to be smaller and not too voluminous. Concluding, the combination of field studies with experimental and theoretical/mathematical and modelling allows us to identify and quantify the main factors controlling collapse calderas.
ISBN: 9788469092958
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Departament - Geodinàmica i Geofísica

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File Description SizeFormat 
00.AGT_PREVIOUS_RESUMEN.pdf442.53 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
01.AGT_INTRODUCTION.pdf756.93 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
02.AGT_FIELD_STUDIES.pdf7.43 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
03.AGT_ANALOGUE_MODELS.pdf5.18 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
05.AGT_DISCUSSION.pdf496.2 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
06.AGT_CONCLUSSIONS.pdf153.63 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
07.AGT_REFERENCES.pdf337.98 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
08.AGT_ANNEXES.pdf2.5 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

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