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Title: Declining malaria transmission in rural Amazon: changing epidemiology and challenges to achieve elimination
Author: Vitor Silva, Sheila
Siqueira, André Machado
Souza Sampaio, Vanderson de
Guinovart, Caterina
Reyes-Lecca, Roberto Carlos
Melo, Gisely Cardoso de
Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo
Portillo Obando, Hernando A. del
Alonso, Pedro
Bassat Orellana, Quique
Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães
Keywords: Malària
Amazon River Region
Issue Date: 10-May-2016
Publisher: BioMed Central
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, considerable success in reducing its incidence has been achieved in Brazil, leading to a relative increase in the proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium vivax, considered a harder-to-eliminate parasite. This study aim is to describe the transmission dynamics and associated risk factors in a rural settlement area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: A prospective cohort was established in a rural settlement area for 3 years. Follow-up included continuous passive case detection and monthly active case detection for a period of 6 months. Demographic, clinical and transmission control practices data were collected. Malaria diagnosis was performed through thick blood smear. Univariable and multivariable analyses of factors associated with malaria incidence were performed using negative binomial regression models. Factors associated with recurrence of P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria within 90 days of a previous episode were analysed using univariable and multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard models. RESULTS: Malaria prevalence decreased from 7 % at the study beginning to 0.6 % at month 24, with P. vivax predominating and P. falciparum disappearing after 1 year of follow-up. Malaria incidence was significantly higher in the dry season [IRR (95 % CI) 1.4 (1.1-1.6); p < 0.001)]. Use of ITN was associated to malaria protection in the localities [IRR (95 % CI) 0.7 (0.6-0.8); p = 0.001)]. A recurrent P. vivax episode within 90 days was observed in 29.4 % of individuals after an initial diagnosis. A previous P. vivax [IRR (95 % CI) 2.3 (1.3-4.0); p = 0.006)] or mixed P. vivax + P. falciparum [IRR (95 % CI) 2.9 (1.5-5.7); p = 0.002)] infections were significantly associated to a vivax malaria episode within 90 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In an area of P. falciparum and P. vivax co-endemicity, a virtual disappearance of P. falciparum was observed with P. vivax increasing its relative contribution, with a large proportion of recurring episodes. This finding reinforces the perception of P. falciparum being more responsive to early diagnosis and treatment and ITN use and the contribution of relapsing P. vivax to maintain this species' transmission. In areas of P. vivax endemicity, antihypnozoite treatment effectiveness assessment in different transmission intensity may be a fundamental activity for malaria control and elimination.
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It is part of: Malaria Journal, 2016, vol. 15, num. 266, p. 1-14
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ISSN: 1475-2875
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (ISGlobal)

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