Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/106940
Title: Connecting centrosomes, cilia and the DNA damage response
Author: Terré Torras, Berta
Director: Stracker, Travis
Tauler Girona, Albert
Keywords: ADN
Malalties hereditàries
DNA
Genetic diseases
Issue Date: 13-Dec-2016
Publisher: Universitat de Barcelona
Abstract: [eng] The suppression of genome instability by the DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for preventing human diseases characterized by developmental defects, infertility and in some cases, elevated cancer predisposition. After DNA damage, the activation of the related ATM and ATR kinases is crucial to amplify a signal transduction cascade required for the proper cellular responses to ensure genomic integrity. Mutations in ATR and other genes involved in the DDR have been identified in patients with Seckel syndrome, that is characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. As defects in many centrosomal proteins also underlie Seckel Syndrome, it has been suggested that a crosstalk between the DDR and centrosome may be important. Supporting this idea, several MCPH/Seckel proteins, such as MCPH1, CEP152, and CEP63 have been implicated in both centrosomal and DDR functions and many DNA repair factors have been identified at the centrosome. In this thesis, we describe the in vivo functional characterization of two proteins implicated in the DDR, CEP63 and GEMC1. We found that they both have distinct critical roles in preventing multisystem pathology in mice. CEP63 is a centrosome protein that facilitates centriole duplication through the recruitment of CEP152 in the centrosome and has been implicated in the DDR as an ATR/ATM target gene in Xenopus. Human CEP63 mutations cause Seckel syndrome, characterized by growth retardation, microcephaly and mental retardation, although the pathological outcomes are milder than those associated with mutations in ATR. In mice, deficiency in Cep63 leads to microcephaly due to the attrition of neural progenitor cells. Using genetic analysis, we showed that this was through a p53-mediated cell death pathway triggered by centrosome-based mitotic errors and independent of the ATM and CHK2 kinases, that activate p53 after DNA damage. GEMC1, a protein that belongs to the Geminin superfamily together with MCIDAS, was originally identified in Xenopus as a pro-replication factor. The characterization of mice lacking GEMC1 revealed its crucial role in regulating two differentiation programs in mammals, multiciliogenesis and spermatogenesis. Gemc1-deficient mice are growth impaired, develop hydrocephaly and are infertile due to defects in the formation of multiciliated epithelial cells in the brain, respiratory tract, oviducts and efferent ducts of the epididymis. We demonstrated that GEMC1 acts at the top of the transcriptional cascade that drives multiciliogenesis and, like MCIDAS, it controls transcription through the association with E2F4/5 and the cofactor DP1. In addition, we found that Gemc1-deficient mice are infertile due to defects in the terminal differentiation of spermatozoa, a process known as spermiogenesis. Although no patients harboring GEMC1 mutations have been identified to date, we believe that Gemc1 is a good candidate for the rare mucociliary clearance disorder referred as Reduced Generation of Multiple Motile Cilia (RGMC) cauterized by defects in multiciliated cell development. To date, mutations in only two genes have been implicated in RGMC in humans, MCIDAS and CCNO. Thus, the generation of these animal models has provided new insights into the molecular functions of CEP63 and GEMC1 in many tissues and expanded our knowledge of the etiology of pathologies associated with rare human diseases.
[spa] La supresión de la inestabilidad del genoma mediante la respuesta al daño del ADN (DDR) es crítica para prevenir enfermedades humanas caracterizadas por defectos en el desarrollo, infertilidad y, en algunos casos, cáncer. Después del daño en el ADN, la activación de las quinasas ATM y ATR es esencial para realizar las respuestas celulares apropiadas. Mutaciones en ATR y otros genes implicados en la DDR se han identificado en pacientes con Síndrome de Seckel, caracterizado por microcefalia y enanismo. Como defectos en otras proteínas centrosomales también causan Síndrome de Seckel, se ha propuesto una relación entre la DDR y el centrosoma. A favor de esta idea, varias proteínas MCPH/Seckel, incluyendo MCPH1, CEP152 y CEP63, se han asociado con funciones en el centrosoma y en la DDR. En esta tesis describimos la caracterización funcional in vivo de dos proteínas implicadas en la DDR, CEP63 y GEMC1. Hemos encontrado que ambas tienen distintas funciones críticas en la prevención de patologías multisistémicas en ratones. La ausencia de CEP63, una proteína implicada en la duplicación del centriolo mutada en el Síndrome de Seckel y regulada por la DDR en Xenopus, causa microcefalia debido al agotamiento de progenitores neuronales. Utilizando en análisis genético hemos demostrado que dicha disminución ocurre como consecuencia de una muerte celular inducida por p53 causada por errores mitóticos basados en defectos del centrosoma. La caracterización de ratones deficientes en GEMC1, una proteína que se ha asociado con la replicación del ADN, ha mostrado su importancia dos procesos de diferenciación en mamíferos, multiciliogenesis y espermatogénesis. Dichos ratones presentan defectos en la formación de células multiciliadas y son un buen modelo para estudiar una enfermedad rara causada por alteraciones en la depuración mucociliar (llamada RGMC). Así, la generación de estos modelos animales ha revelado la importancia de las funciones de CEP63 y GEMC1 in vivo y ha ampliado nuestro conocimiento sobre la etiología de las patologías asociadas con enfermedades humanas raras.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/106940
Appears in Collections:Tesis Doctorals - Facultat - Farmàcia

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