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Title: Essential and toxic elements in human milk concentrate with human milk lyophilizate: A preclinical study
Author: Oliveira, Mariana M.
Trevilato, Tânia M. B.
Segura Muñoz, Susana I.
Aragon, Davi C.
Alves, Larissa G.
Nadal, Martí
Marquès, Montse
Sierra, J. (Jordi)
Domingo, José L.
Keywords: Llet maternitzada
Infants prematurs
Infant formulas
Premature infants
Issue Date: Sep-2020
Publisher: Elsevier
Abstract: Concentrated human milk (HM-concentrate) can be obtained from the simple and inexpensive method of donated breast milk direct lyophilization. A previous study reported that HM-concentrate contains the adequate amount of main macro- and micronutrients for use as a nutritional resource for preterm infants with very low birth weight admitted to neonatal intensive care units. However, further details need to be elucidated about HM-concentrate composition, particularly its content of essential and potentially toxic trace elements. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the concentration of essential and toxic elements in human milk considered baseline (HM-baseline) and HM-concentrate, as well as to quantify changes in concentration of these elements after the HM concentration process. The concentration of Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, Mercury, Manganese, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Tin, and Thallium was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Moreover, Bayesian linear mixed effect models were applied to estimate the mean difference between HM-baseline and HM-concentrate samples. After comparison (HM-concentrate versus HM-baseline), a significant increase in concentration was observed only for Manganese (0.80 μg/L; 95% CrI [0.16; 1.43]) and Selenium (6.74 μg/L; 95% CrI [4.66; 8.86]), while Lead concentration (−6.13 μg/L; 95% CrI [-8.63; −3.61]) decreased. This study provides latest and reliable information about HM composition. After milk concentration by lyophilization, there was a significant increase only in the essential elements Manganese and Selenium. The essential micronutrient content in HM-concentrate was similar or higher than that in preterm mothers' milk, which suggests it is viable for nutritional support of preterm infants. In addition, the low concentrations of potentially toxic elements in HM-concentrate indicates that it is safe for consumption by premature newborns.
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It is part of: Environmental Research, 2020, vol. 188
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ISSN: 0013-9351
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Biologia, Sanitat i Medi Ambient)

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