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Title: Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in open and semi-open settings: a systematic review
Author: Sureda, Xisca
Fernández Muñoz, Esteve
López, María José
Nebot, Manel
Keywords: Tabac
Contaminació de l'ambient interior
Contaminació atmosfèrica
Malalties cardiovasculars
Indoor air pollution
Atmospheric pollution
Cardiovascular diseases
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2013
Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Science
Abstract: Background: Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to review research on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor settings. Data sources: We conducted different searches in PubMed for the period prior to September 2012. We checked the references of the identified papers, and conducted a similar search in Google Scholar. Study selection: Our search terms included combinations of"secondhand smoke,""environmental tobacco smoke,""passive smoking" OR"tobacco smoke pollution" AND"outdoors" AND"PM" (particulate matter),"PM2.5" (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm),"respirable suspended particles,""particulate matter,""nicotine,""CO" (carbon monoxide),"cotinine,""marker,""biomarker" OR"airborne marker." In total, 18 articles and reports met the inclusion criteria. Results: Almost all studies used PM2.5 concentration as an SHS marker. Mean PM2.5 concentrations reported for outdoor smoking areas when smokers were present ranged from 8.32 to 124 µg/m3 at hospitality venues, and 4.60 to 17.80 µg/m3 at other locations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in smoke-free indoor settings near outdoor smoking areas ranged from 4 to 120.51 µg/m3. SHS levels increased when smokers were present, and outdoor and indoor SHS levels were related. Most studies reported a positive association between SHS measures and smoker density, enclosure of outdoor locations, wind conditions, and proximity to smokers. Conclusions: The available evidence indicates high SHS levels at some outdoor smoking areas and at adjacent smoke-free indoor areas. Further research and standardization of methodology is needed to determine whether smoke-free legislation should be extended to outdoor settings.
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It is part of: Environmental Health Perspectives, 2013, vol. 121, num. 7, p. 766-773
Related resource:
ISSN: 0091-6765
Appears in Collections:Articles publicats en revistes (Ciències Clíniques)
Articles publicats en revistes (Institut d'lnvestigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL))

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